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Keindahan Rajasthani Ilahi

Keindahan Rajasthani Ilahi



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Sudut Pandang: Yang suci dan sensual dalam seni India

Pada awal musim panas tahun 1819, sebuah pesta pemburuan Inggeris, yang kalah di pergunungan Ghats Barat yang gersang, membuat penemuan peluang yang luar biasa.

Mengikuti seekor harimau ke lembah sungai yang terpencil dan sempit, para pemburu tersandung pada apa yang segera dikenali sebagai salah satu keajaiban besar India - gua Ajanta yang dilukis.

Di dinding garis 31 gua yang digali menjadi ampiteater batu padat, terdapat lukisan paling kuno dan indah dalam seni Buddha, yang tertua yang berasal dari abad ke-2 SM - zaman kegemilangan lukisan India yang hilang. Bersama dengan lukisan dinding Pompeii, Ajanta mewakili galeri gambar terhebat untuk bertahan dari dunia kuno dan penggambaran kehidupan klasik beradab yang paling komprehensif yang kita miliki.

Mural Ajanta menceritakan kisah Jataka mengenai kehidupan Buddha dalam gambar keanggunan dan rahmat tertinggi. Para seniman menghasilkan gambar yang secara terang-terangan meneroka pelbagai situasi manusia, dari penolakan pertapa melalui potret Bodhisattva yang penuh belas kasihan dari keindahan dunia lain yang bergoyang di ambang Pencerahan, hingga ke pemandangan yang lebih bersahaja dari kehormatan sopan di taman-taman kesenangan India kuno yang telah lama hilang.

Walaupun gambar-gambar itu mungkin ditujukan untuk penonton monastik, Buddha cenderung selalu ditunjukkan bukan di lingkungan biarawannya, setelah Pencerahannya, tetapi di lingkungan sopan di mana dia dibesarkan. Di sini di antara para pangeran dan bangsawan yang tampan, puteri berkulit gelap menderita cinta, sementara gadis-gadis menari dengan berat dan pelayan wanita dipamerkan dalam keadaan bogel tetapi untuk perhiasan dan ikat pinggang mereka, yang digantung menggoda di tengah-tengah taman istana dan bangunan istana. Wanita-wanita ini sesuai dengan idea-idea kecantikan feminin yang disebarkan oleh penulis drama abad ke-5 Kalidasa yang hebat, yang menulis mengenai lelaki yang merenung potret kekasih mereka, sambil berusaha mencari metafora yang tepat untuk menggambarkannya: & quot; Saya mengenali badan anda di liana ungkapan anda dalam mata yang ketakutan menatap keindahan wajah anda di bulan, jejak anda di bulu burung merak. Malangnya! Rakan pemalu - tidak ada objek yang dapat dibandingkan dengan anda. & Quot; Seperti yang dikatakan oleh sejarawan seni India yang hebat, Vidya Dehejia, & quot; idea bahawa gambaran sensual seperti itu dapat menimbulkan pemikiran tidak sopan sepertinya tidak muncul, tetapi persatuan yang sudah mapan tampaknya ada dengan pertumbuhan, kemakmuran yang menonjol dan keberuntungan. & quot Itulah sebabnya mengapa biara-biara Ajanta dipenuhi dengan gambar wanita cantik - kerana di mata para bhikkhu ini adalah hiasan yang sangat sesuai.

Ketika saya pertama kali melihat gua-gua ini pada usia 18 tahun, inilah yang menyebabkan saya berhenti berfikir. Mengapa, saya tertanya-tanya, adakah sebuah biara yang dibina untuk para biksu Buddha yang dihiasi dengan gambar-gambar wanita istana yang cantik dan bertelanjang dada? Kembali minggu lalu setelah jeda 30 tahun, saya sekali lagi dilanda pemikiran yang sama. Di dunia Kristiani, ini adalah pertengahan masa Prapaskah, musim disiplin diri dan kekurangan diri, tetapi di sini saya berada di tengah-tengah sebuah komuniti monastik yang suka rela memilih untuk menjalani jalan pertapa yang keras dalam potongan batu kecil sel, namun membuat keputusan dengan sengaja untuk menutup dinding bangunan keagamaannya dengan gambar wanita menarik.

Saya tidak bersendirian kerana terkejut dengan perkara ini. Orang-orang Barat yang datang ke India selalu merasa bingung untuk menghadapi sikap yang sangat berbeza terhadap orang-orang sensual dan hubungannya dengan yang suci. Di sini dianggap sangat sesuai untuk menutup dinding luar bangunan keagamaan dengan pasangan suami isteri yang grafik.

Sebaliknya, agama Kristiani selalu melihat tubuh manusia sebagai dosa, nafsu dan memalukan, kenderaan yang dicemari jiwa yang binasa, sesuatu yang harus dijinakkan dan disiplin - suatu halangan besar untuk keselamatan. Satu dekad yang lalu saya teringat menghabiskan satu lagi Prapaskah di biara-biara gurun Koptik Mesir. Di sinilah, pada hari-hari kematian kerajaan Rom, doktrin-doktrin Kristian mengenai dosa tubuh manusia yang pertama kali dirumuskan. Bertentangan dengan cinta romantis klasik Rom, para bhikkhu Kristian awal berangkat untuk mematikan tubuh mereka dan melawan semua godaan daging. Hanya dengan menolak keinginan anda dan membuang tubuh, para bhikkhu Koptik mempertahankan, anda dapat mencapai kesempurnaan. Kita adalah debu dan debu kita akan kembali. Sikap ini tidak pernah meninggalkan tradisi Kristian Barat sepenuhnya.

Untuk penjajahan British, seni India & obsesi dengan badan sensual selalu memberikan penghalang kepada penghayatan seni India. Patung India dianggap tidak bermoral dan hubungan dengannya dipercayai menjangkiti kerentanan moral. Seawal abad ke-17, pelancong Eropah sedang berjalan-jalan tentang kuil-kuil yang dipenuhi dengan & # 39; pura tidak bermoral, percabulan gaya kafir dan kekejian lain…. [dan] begitu penuh dengan tokoh Monsters yang memalukan, sehingga seseorang tidak dapat memasukinya tanpa rasa seram & quot. Bahkan pada abad ke-18 yang bebas, seorang lelaki mengadu bahawa & # 39; tokoh-tokoh Dewa dan Dewi ditunjukkan dalam Postur yang tidak senonoh, bahawa ia akan memukau para nimfa Covent Garden untuk menirunya & quot.

Tetapi bagi orang-orang India pra-kolonial tidak ada hubungan wanita dengan dosa, dan dalam semua kitab suci India tidak ada Hawa, yang mengambil kejatuhan untuk Kejatuhan. Wanita dihubungkan bukan dengan godaan melainkan dengan kesuburan, kelimpahan dan kemakmuran, dan ada pelukan seksualitas terbuka sebagai salah satu jalan menuju ilahi. & quot; Dalam pelukan kekasihnya, seorang lelaki melupakan seluruh dunia, segala yang ada di dalam dan di luar, & quot; menyatakan Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. & quot; Dengan cara yang sama, dia yang memeluk Diri tidak tahu baik di dalam maupun di luar. & quot

Atas sebab ini sepanjang sejarah mereka yang panjang, seni India - baik visual dan sastera - secara konsisten meraikan keindahan tubuh manusia. Sesungguhnya seluruh tradisi yoga bertujuan untuk menyempurnakan dan mengubah tubuh, dengan pandangan, antara yang lebih tinggi, untuk menjadikannya transenden, maha mengetahui, bahkan seperti tuhan. Tubuh, dengan kata lain, bukan beberapa pelengkap yang dicemari untuk diserahkan, tetapi berpotensi menjadi wahana ketuhanan. Dalam tradisi ini, sensual dan suci tidak ditentang. Mereka satu, dan sensual dilihat sebagai bahagian yang tidak terpisahkan dari yang suci. Para dewa selalu digambarkan sebagai manusia yang sangat cantik, kerana jika gambarnya tidak cantik maka para dewa tidak dapat dipujuk untuk mendiami patung itu.

Obsesi dengan keindahan tubuh manusia ini bertahan dari gelombang pencerobohan, dan kedatangan Islam di Asia Selatan. Memang pada awal abad ke-18 kita melihat gambar-gambar eksplisit Maharaja Muhammad Shah & quotRangila & quot atau Colorful, bercinta dengan perempuan simpanannya. Oleh itu, bukan zaman Islam yang membawa perpecahan dramatik dengan tradisi sensual India. Sebaliknya, kerosakan itu berlaku semasa zaman penjajahan, dengan kedatangan mubaligh Kristian pada abad ke-19. Sebagai reaksi terhadap orang-orang Inggeris mengenai & quot; Hindoo maksiat & quot; generasi baru pembaharu Hindu yang berpendidikan Inggeris mula kritis untuk mengkaji semula tradisi mereka sendiri. Sebuah gerakan muncul yang mendesak wanita Hindu untuk menutup diri, dan kesucian dan kesopanan ditinggikan sebagai sifat ideal wanita Hindu.

Hari ini, terdapat banyak rasa malu dan penolakan mengenai peranan erotik di India pra-moden. Ketika diminta untuk memberikan reaksi terhadap krisis AIDS India yang meningkat beberapa tahun yang lalu, menteri kesihatan ketika itu menyatakan bahawa tradisi kesucian dan kesetiaan asli India lebih berkesan daripada penggunaan kondom. Baru-baru ini, Disember lalu, Mahkamah Agung India menegakkan undang-undang yang mengkriminalkan seks gay, dan, sekali lagi, ia bertentangan dengan tradisi India. Menteri dan hakim nampaknya tidak pernah mendengar tentang Kama Sutra atau mengunjungi kuil-kuil erotis Khajaraho - atau memang menggali tradisi sajak cinta Rajasthani yang kaya dengan tradisi.

Bagi saya pertembungan persepsi yang menarik ini memberi banyak pengajaran. Kita semua diprogramkan secara budaya, mungkin terutama dalam hal seks dan sensual. Kami menganggap bahawa banyak nilai kita bersifat universal apabila sebenarnya sangat subjektif dan peribadi.

Ini juga menunjukkan betapa mudahnya kita menggambarkan nilai-nilai moral masa kini ke masa lalu. Kami menganggap para bhikkhu Buddha tidak akan menyetujui dan menghindari gambaran sensual, tetapi sensasi terang-terangan mengenai seni Buddhisme awal di Ajanta dan tempat-tempat awal Buddha di seluruh India, sangat luar biasa. Sekiranya sejarah dan sejarah seni mempunyai nilai di luar hiburan dan memberi kita pelajaran dan contoh dari masa lalu, mungkin, seperti perjalanan, membebaskan kita dari kezaliman nilai budaya kita sendiri dan membuat kita menyedari betapa kontingen dan terikat oleh masa, budaya dan geografi begitu banyak prasangka kita sebenarnya.

Sudut Pandang disiarkan pada hari Jumaat di Radio 4 pada 20:50 BST dan diulang pada hari Ahad jam 08:50 BST. Mengejar IPlayer BBC


Ciri-ciri utama

Kesahan tema - Terdapat kebenaran dalam tema lukisan Rajasthani. tema berdasarkan muzik sesi (Brahmasa), adegan berburu tema keagamaan seperti Ramayna, Mahabharta, adegan cinta dan krishan dan Radha telah digambarkan.

Skema warna - Warna utama yang digunakan adalah warna primer (biru merah dan kuning) hijau, coklat dan putih. warna lain yang digunakan adalah emas dan perak.

Kostum - Wanita memakai lehenga dan choli dengan dupatta telus, lelaki memakai turbun, jhabba, patka dan pazama.

Ciri wajah - Wajah yang penuh dengan emosi dan perasaan sesuai dengan suasana hati. Muka memanjang, bujur dan profil (pose sisi) dahi condong ke bawah, hidung panjang dan runcing membengkak bibir dan dagu runcing.

Penggambaran wanita - Wanita sekolah kishangarh sangat mengagumkan Bani Thani dari sekolah kishangarh adalah lukisan kemasyhuran dunia.

Garisan- garisannya sangat kuat dan berirama.

Penggambaran alam - Alam juga digambarkan dengan sangat indah, pelbagai jenis pokok, pokok bunga, gunung, air, mata air dan tasik telah digambarkan dengan cara yang sangat menarik.

Ciri Senyap

1. Kepelbagaian dalam Tema, Adegan sebarang aktiviti yang berkaitan dengan agama, Sosial, Pemburuan Mahkamah Nayak - Nayika Bheda, Musim (Barah Masa), Rag Ragini dll.

2. Garis kuat dan berirama sekolah ini adalah dari Seni India tradisional lama.

3. Warna bersinar dalam kontras harmoni yang mendalam.

4. Pelbagai jenis pakaian lelaki dan wanita di wilayah Rajasthan.

5. Diilhamkan dari epik India, puisi pemujaan, puisi Romantik, dan Muzik India.

6. Wajah Manusia ditunjukkan dari sudut yang berbeza.

7. Tokoh wanita sering dilukis.

8. Sebilangan besar Wajah adalah profil.

9. Klasifikasi daya tarikan wanita dalam mod dan suasana yang berbeza.

10. Beberapa lukisan Besar hanya di Kishangarh, Kota, Bundi dan Bikaner.


Keindahan Rajasthani Ilahi - Sejarah

Mesej utama Injil adalah belas kasihan Tuhan terhadap manusia yang jatuh. Rahmat-Nya inilah yang memulai Dia menjadi manusia, mati dan bangkit dari kematian. Dia ingin memperoleh rahmat untuk anak-anak kesayangan-Nya. Namun, bagi sebilangan besar dari kita sangat mudah, ketika kita terjebak dalam kesibukan kehidupan seharian kita, untuk melupakan rahmat Tuhan, dan berfikir bahawa Dia tidak berbeza dengan manusia, yang kemampuannya untuk pengampunan adalah terhad. Kecenderungan untuk mengubah pengampunan Tuhan inilah yang menimbulkan kebutuhan kita akan pengabdian Rahmat Ilahi.

Keputusasaan Jansenisme

Asal-usul pengabdian kepada Rahmat Ilahi dapat ditelusuri, setidaknya sebagian, dari bidaah Jansenisme, yang berasal dari Perancis abad ketujuh belas dengan seorang teolog Belanda bernama Cornelius Jansen. Tidak memusatkan perhatian pada kebaikan Tuhan tetapi pada kecenderungan manusia untuk berdosa, Jansenism menyelitkan penganutnya dengan ketakutan Tuhan, dan kepercayaan yang panik bahawa orang Kristian harus memenuhi daftar tugas rohani untuk memastikan bahawa dia telah melakukan semua "hak" "Perkara-perkara dan dengan demikian akan dijamin pengampunan Tuhan. Dalam pandangan Jansenist, Tuhan adalah hakim yang benar-benar menuntut, yang meninggalkan sedikit ruang untuk belas kasihan, dan mengharapkan manusia berperilaku sempurna dalam segala hal.

Walaupun sangat mustahak untuk menghindari dosa, Jansenisme membawa syarat ini ke tahap ekstrim yang tidak masuk akal, mengosongkan Tuhan dari rahmat yang merupakan salah satu sifat terbesar-Nya. Mungkin untuk mengatasinya, mulai tahun 1673 Yesus sendiri campur tangan dengan menghadirkan diri kepada Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque di Perancis yang semakin berada di bawah kekuasaan Jansenisme dan memberikan kepadanya, dan secara meluas kepada kita semua, pengabdian kepada Hati Kudus Yesus . Dengan menekankan Hati Kudus Yesus dan kasih yang Dia miliki untuk manusia, pengabdian yang Dia berikan kepada Saint Margaret Mary berfungsi untuk membuka jalan bagi pengabdian Rahmat Ilahi yang Yesus akan berikan kepada dunia hampir tiga abad kemudian.

Permulaan Rahmat

Pengabdian Rahmat Ilahi itu sendiri bermula pada tahun 1931. Pada suatu petang Ahad pada bulan Februari, Yesus muncul kepada seorang biarawati muda Polandia bernama Sister Faustina Kowalska dari Sidang Saudari-saudari Bunda Maria di Warsaw. Dalam gambar itu, Yesus muncul dengan dua sinar, satu merah dan satu pucat, terpancar dari Hati-Nya. Kedua sinar ini mewakili darah dan air yang mengalir dari sisi-Nya ketika Dia dicucuk oleh tombak centurion itu setelah mati di kayu salib. Dia memanggil Diri-Nya "Raja Rahmat," dan menyuruhnya membuat lukisan penampilannya, dengan kata-kata "Yesus saya percaya kepada Anda" di bahagian bawahnya. Pada hari yang sama, Dia juga mengatakan kepada Sister Faustina bahawa Dia menginginkan hari Minggu pertama setelah Paskah setiap tahun untuk diperingati sebagai Minggu Rahmat Ilahi, untuk menyebarkan kesedaran tentang rahmat-Nya yang tak terhingga, dan menjadi sumber rahmat dan pengampunan bagi seluruh dunia. Dengan bantuan Bapa Michael Sopocko, yang dia temui di Vilnius, Faustina mendapatkan usaha pelukis profesional untuk membuat gambar sesuai dengan keterangannya. Oleh itu benih awal pengabdian Rahmat Ilahi ditanam.

Selama beberapa tahun ke depan, Yesus secara beransur-ansur mengungkapkan kepada Faustina semua elemen yang Dia inginkan untuk membentuk pengabdian Rahmat Ilahi. Pada tahun 1935 Dia memberinya Kapel Rahmat Ilahi, yang merupakan rangkaian doa yang dapat dimakbulkan pada Rosario standar. Doa-doa ini berfungsi untuk mengingatkan orang-orang yang setia akan kasih dan rahmat Tuhan yang tidak terhingga bagi mereka, dan itu sendiri merupakan sumber rahmat bagi mereka yang mendoakannya. Yesus menasihati Faustina untuk berdoa di Kapel terutama pada jam 3:00 petang "Jam Rahmat" kerana pada waktu itulah Dia telah mati di kayu salib, sehingga memenangkan belas kasihan bagi dunia. Yesus berjanji kepada Faustina: ". Ketika mereka mengatakan Kapel ini di hadapan orang yang mati, saya akan berdiri di antara Bapa-Ku dan yang mati bukan sebagai hakim yang adil tetapi sebagai Penyelamat yang Penyayang."

Kapel Rahmat Ilahi dapat dikatakan setiap hari, tetapi ada waktu tertentu dalam setahun ketika ini paling berkhasiat, dan itu adalah semasa Divine Mercy Novena. Ini bermula pada hari Jumaat yang baik dan berlangsung pada hari Sabtu minggu berikutnya, menjelang Hari Minggu Rahmat Ilahi. Yesus sendiri memberi Faustina niat tertentu untuk didoakan pada setiap sembilan hari:

  • Seluruh umat manusia, khususnya semua orang berdosa
  • Jiwa imam dan beragama
  • Jiwa orang yang taat dan setia
  • Bagi orang-orang yang tidak percaya dan mereka yang belum mengenal Yesus
  • Jiwa bidaah dan skismatik
  • Jiwa "lemah lembut dan rendah hati" dan untuk anak-anak kecil
  • Jiwa orang yang sangat memuliakan rahmat Kristus
  • Jiwa di Purgatory
  • Jiwa yang menjadi suam-suam kuku dan tidak peduli

Hari minggu adalah masa rahmat khas bagi dunia. Yesus ingin mencurahkan rahmat-Nya ke seluruh dunia, terutama ketika kita membuat petisyen kepada Tuhan selama novena ini.

Penindasan dan Persetujuan

Baru setelah kematian Sister Faustina pada tahun 1938, berita mengenai Yesus muncul kepadanya, dan semua yang ditulisnya dalam buku hariannya, menjadi terkenal di luar biara. Pengabdian kepada Yesus sebagai Raja Rahmat menjadi tepat pada masanya ketika Perang Dunia II merosakkan Eropah. Pusat-pusat dan tempat-tempat suci untuk Rahmat Ilahi mula berlipat ganda dengan cepat, terutama di wilayah kelahiran Sister Faustina, Poland. Namun, pada bulan Mac 1959, Tahta Suci secara rasmi menekan pengabdian Rahmat Ilahi, yang bermaksud bahawa ia melarang umat Katolik daripada mempraktikkan pengabdian itu dan memasukkannya ke dalam kehidupan doa peribadi atau awam mereka. Penindasan adalah sesuatu yang mesti dilakukan oleh Takhta Suci dengan wahyu peribadi sebelum sempat menyiasatnya secara menyeluruh dan menilai apakah itu sahih atau tidak.

Selama hampir dua dekad, pengabdian kepada Rahmat Ilahi secara rasmi dilarang oleh Holy See. Akan tetapi, selama ini, seorang kardinal Poland bernama Karol Wojtyła melakukan penelitian yang mendalam mengenai topik ini, dan terus membaca teks-teks asli Sister Faustina untuk cuba melihat apakah penampakan Yesus ini akhirnya terbukti sah, dan pengabdian Rahmat Ilahi ortodoks. Akhirnya dia meyakinkan Bapa Suci Paus Paulus VI bahawa penampakan itu asli dan pengabdian itu sesuai dengan Teologi Katolik. Akibatnya, Paus Paul mencabut larangan Rahmat Ilahi pada bulan April 1978. Hanya enam bulan kemudian, Kardinal Wojtyła menjadi Paus John Paul II.

Sepanjang pengakuannya, Paus John Paul II tidak pernah berhenti menyebarkan pesan belas kasihan Faustina kepada dunia dalam perjalanan, khotbah dan saksi agama, dan memukulinya pada bulan April 1993. Selain itu, pada 30 April 2000 hari Ahad pertama setelah Paus Paskah Yohanes Paulus II kedua-duanya menjatuhkan Faustina sebagai orang suci pertama tahun 2000-an, dan menyatakan bahawa hari Minggu pertama setelah Paskah akan dikenal sebagai Hari Ilahi Rahmat Ilahi, sebagai memenuhi permintaan yang Yesus ajukan kepada Faustina pada tahun 1931.

Cara Berdoa di Kapel

Kapel Rahmat Ilahi sangat mudah dipelajari, dan dapat didoakan pada Rosario standard. Mulailah dengan berdoa kepada Bapa Kita, Salam Maria, dan Akidah Rasul. Seterusnya, bacakan doa pembuka:

"Kamu telah berakhir, Yesus, tetapi sumber kehidupan mengalir untuk jiwa, dan lautan rahmat terbuka untuk seluruh dunia. Wahai Kehidupan, Rahmat Ilahi yang tidak dapat diduga, menyelimuti seluruh dunia dan mengosongkan Dirimu ke atas kami. "

Kemudian, pada manik besar dekad pertama (manik "Bapa Kita"), ucapkan doa berikut:

"Bapa Abadi, aku mempersembahkan kepada kamu Tubuh dan Darah, Jiwa dan Ketuhanan Putra Terkasih-Mu, Tuhan kita, Yesus Kristus, untuk menebus dosa-dosa kita dan dosa-dosa seluruh dunia."

Pada masing-masing dari sepuluh manik yang lebih kecil (manik "Salam Maria"), ucapkan doa ini:

"Demi nafsu-Nya yang menyedihkan, kasihanilah kami dan seluruh dunia."

Ulangi doa ini lima kali, seperti yang anda lakukan pada lima misteri Rosario. Pada akhir lima dekad, ucapkan doa berikut tiga kali:

"Tuhan yang Maha Suci, Yang Mahakuasa, Yang Mahakudus yang Maha Suci, kasihanilah kami, dan seluruh dunia."

Doa penutup terakhir adalah:

"Tuhan yang Kekal, di mana belas kasihan tidak ada habisnya dan harta belas kasihan yang tidak habis-habisnya, lihatlah dengan hormat kepada kami dan tingkatkan belas kasihanMu dalam diri kami, bahawa pada saat-saat sukar kita mungkin tidak putus asa atau menjadi putus asa, tetapi dengan keyakinan yang tinggi menyerahkan diri kepada kehendak suciMu, itu adalah Cinta dan Rahmat itu sendiri. "

Apakah maksud ini?

Apa artinya mempersembahkan kepada Tuhan Tubuh, Darah, Jiwa dan Ketuhanan Yesus? Bagaimana kita dapat mempersembahkan Yesus kepada Tuhan? Bukankah Dia juga Tuhan?

Apa yang kita lakukan ketika kita mengatakan bahawa doa-doa ini adalah hal yang sama seperti yang Yesus sendiri lakukan di Calvary mempersembahkan diri kepada Tuhan Bapa bagi kita. Sebagai Manusia sejati, Yesus dapat benar-benar mewakili seluruh umat manusia, saudara-saudaranya, sebelum Tuhan menebus dosa asal manusia. Pada waktu yang sama, sebagai Tuhan yang benar, hanya Yesus yang dapat memberikan pengorbanan yang cukup untuk menebus dosa-dosa manusia, yang merupakan dosa terhadap Tuhan yang baik. Penebusan dan penyucian manusia bermula dengan rahmat Tuhan, bukan dengan pahala manusia. Kami tidak melakukan pekerjaan baik yang pantas untuk keselamatan kami, sehingga kami dapat menuntut agar Tuhan memberi kami keselamatan sebagai hak. Sebaliknya, kita hanya mempunyai kelebihan Kristus yang menjadi asas harapan kita. Inilah sebabnya mengapa kita mengatakan bahawa kita mempersembahkan pengorbanan Kristus kepada Tuhan: inilah yang harus kita pertahankan pada hari penghakiman.

Manfaat Rohani Berdoa di Kapel

Inti dari Kapel Rahmat Ilahi luar biasa dalam kesederhanaannya, tetapi juga sangat luar biasa kerana itu hanyalah ringkasan dari pesan Injil yang asli yang diberitakan oleh Tuhan kita sendiri semasa zaman-Nya di bumi. Di dalamnya, kita meminta Tuhan untuk mengurniakan rahmat-Nya kepada kita dan seluruh dunia. Dalam buku hariannya, Faustina mencatat penglihatan di mana seorang malaikat dihantar oleh Tuhan untuk menghancurkan kota yang penuh dosa, tetapi kekuatan malaikat itu tersisa ketika Faustina mula berdoa di Kapel. Penglihatan ini mewakili apa yang berlaku setiap kali kita berdoa kaplet Rahmat Ilahi, atau memuliakan gambar Yesus sebagai Raja Rahmat. Kita meminta belas kasihan Tuhan menenangkan atau memuaskan murka-Nya dan melepaskan pintu-pintu rahmat-Nya kepada orang-orang berdosa.

Gereja telah lama memahami darah dan air yang mengalir dari sisi Kristus di salib sebagai mewakili Gereja, sama seperti Hawa dibentuk dari sisi Adam. Penyertaan darah dan air ini dalam gambar Rahmat Ilahi menerangi dan menghidupkan kepentingannya. Darah Kristus menebus kita, dan perairan Pembaptisan menjadikan kita anggota kehidupan-Nya, dan turut serta dalam penebusan yang Dia tawarkan kepada kita. Bersama-sama, mereka adalah kaedah di mana manusia mendapat rahmat Tuhan. Kapel Rahmat Ilahi, dan semua elemen lain dari pengabdian Rahmat Ilahi, adalah cara untuk kita memohon belas kasihan Tuhan kepada diri kita sendiri dan seluruh dunia.

Kristus memberitahu Saint Faustina bahawa bukan sahaja Dia akan mengizinkan untuk berbelaskasihan, tetapi Dia secara positif menginginkannya Dia merindukan kita untuk meminta belas kasihan kepada-Nya, kerana Dia tidak ingin kita binasa selamanya. Seperti yang dikatakan oleh Paus Francis dalam pidato Angelus pertamanya pada tahun 2013: “Tuhan tidak pernah jemu memaafkan kita. Kita yang bosan meminta pengampunan. " Kita dapat menggunakan pengabdian Rahmat Ilahi untuk membawa pengampunan ini, serta rahmat lain yang tak terhitung jumlahnya, ke dunia. Tuhan menghendaki anda datang kepada-Nya dengan kepercayaan, kerana Dia adalah Bapa anda. Marilah kita pergi dengan yakin, bersama Saint Faustina, kepada Tuhan Bapa kita untuk meminta pengampunan-Nya. Mari kita katakan dengan Saint Faustina, "Yesus saya percaya kepada-Mu!"


Keindahan Rajasthani Ilahi - Sejarah

Garga adalah salah satu bijak dalam zaman Puranic. Dia lebih dikenali sebagai GargaMuni. Dia adalah imam keluarga keluarga Nanda (bapa angkat Krishna).

Dia menamakan Krishna setelah menerima nama itu dengan bertafakur. Dari Vishnu Purana dan Puranas lain, seseorang memahami bahawa walaupun pada dasarnya berasal dari Kshatriya, cabang Gargas menjadi Brahmana dan berhijrah ke arah barat dan bergabung dengan Yavanas (Ion). Ini boleh menjadi alasan bahawa orang-orang India di kemudian hari merujuk ahli matematik Yunani dan ahli astronomi sebagai Gargacharyas sambil menegaskan bahawa Vridha-Garga (Garga Sebelumnya atau Lama) adalah pelopor dalam astronomi.

Gargas adalah pejuang dan beberapa teks menunjukkan bahawa mereka adalah keturunan Guru Dronacharya, watak legenda dari Mahabharata. Nama Gargas dan Garg tidak sama. Garg adalah vaishya semata-mata dan tidak mempunyai kaitan dengan Rishi Gargas.

Guru Dronacharya adalah anak kepada keturunan Rishi Bhardwaj. Keturunan Bharadwaj Gotra mempamerkan keterampilan pejuang, kerana bijak Bharadwaj mengahwini seorang wanita Kshatriya bernama Suseela. Menurut perkahwinan Anuloma, mereka yang dilahirkan oleh seorang ayah Brahmana dan seorang wanita Kshatriya mengambil ciri Kshatriya walaupun secara teknikalnya adalah seorang Brahmana. Oleh itu keturunan Brahmin dari Bharadwaj Gotra disebut sebagai Brahma-Kshatriyas (Pahlawan Brahmana).

Dia adalah anak kepada Rishi Bharadwaja dan Susheela.

Gargi adalah seorang wanita bijak Vachaknavi, yang dilahirkan dalam keluarga Garga.

Garga si bijak adalah penulis Garga Samhita.

Pautan Wikipedia. http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garga .

Kuil Bankey Bihari ini didirikan oleh Swami Haridas (Lalita Sakhi di Dvapara Yuga), seorang guru penyanyi terkenal Tansen. Setelah permintaan murid-muridnya Swami Haridas ji menyanyikan ayat berikut dalam Nidhivan di Vrindavan "Mai ri sahaj jori pragat bhai ju rang ki gaur syam ghan damini jaisen. Pratham hun ahuti ab hun aagen hun rahihai na tarihai taisain .. Ang ang ki ujraii sugharaii chaturaii sunderta aisain .. Shri Haridas ke swami syama kunjbihari sam vais vaisain .. "Ketika menyanyikan ayat itu, pasangan Surgawi Shyama shyam (Radha Krishna) muncul di depannya dan para pengikutnya dan atas permintaan Shri Swami ji pasangan itu bergabung menjadi satu dan idola Banke bihari muncul di sana (berhala yang sama yang dilihat di kuil). Berhala itu didirikan di Nidhivan. Sejarah Bankey Bihari Ji

Gambar Bihariji yang dipasang di Shri Bankey Bihari Mandir, adalah gambar yang diberikan kepada Swami Haridas oleh pasangan cakerawala Shyama-Shyam sendiri. Menundukkan keinginan penyembah Tuhan muncul secara langsung dengan permaisuri ilahi-Nya dan meninggalkan kembali gambar hitam yang menawan sebelum menghilang.

Swami Haridas dilahirkan oleh Shri Ashudhir dan isterinya Smt. Gangadevi pada hari Radha Ashtami, iaitu hari kelapan dua minggu kedua (terang) Bhadrapad bulan tahun 1535 Vikrami (1478 M). Dia dilahirkan di sebuah kampung kecil, sekarang dikenali sebagai Haridaspur, dekat Aligarh di Uttar Pradesh. Keturunan keluarga dapat ditelusuri kembali ke Shri Gargacharya. Shri Gargachrya adalah Kulaguru (guru keluarga) Yadavas dan mengunjungi Brij secara diam-diam kerana menjalankan Namakarana Samskara (upacara penamaan) Krishna dan Balarama muda atas permintaan Sri Vasudeva. Sebahagian keluarga tersebut berhijrah ke Multan (sekarang di Pakistan), tetapi sebilangan mereka kembali setelah sekian lama. Sri Ashudhir adalah pendatang seperti itu yang setelah pulang dari Multan menetap di pinggir Brij, dekat Aligarh.

Swami Haridas adalah reinkarnasi Lalita 'sakhi' (teman wanita), dari konsorsium batin Dewa Krishna. Ini dengan mudah menjelaskan hakikat bahawa walaupun pada masa kecilnya, dia lebih banyak bertafakur dan membaca kitab suci, sementara anak-anak lain seusianya sibuk bermain. Dia berkahwin pada usia yang sesuai mengikut masa dengan Harimati. Walaupun selepas perkahwinannya, Haridas muda menjauhkan diri dari kesenangan duniawi dan bertumpu pada meditasi. Harimatiji adalah jiwa yang suci sendiri sehingga setelah menyadari kecenderungan suaminya, dia berdoa dengan kuat dan dibawa ke rumah kediaman surgawi Tuhan dengan menyalakan api pelita kecil di hadapan Haridas. Tidak ada jenazah fizikal yang tertinggal.

Tidak lama kemudian, Haridas meninggalkan kampungnya menuju Vrindavan, yang merupakan hutan lebat pada waktu itu dan memilih tempat terpencil, yang sekarang dikenal sebagai Nidhivan, untuk mempraktikkan muziknya dan menikmati kebahagiaan meditasi yang abadi. Dia terus menerus bertafakur pada Nitya Ras dan Nitya Bihar of Lord di Nitya Vrindavan. Cara Sadhna adalah menyusun dan menyanyikan lagu dalam pujian Tuhan. Semasa di bumi, hidup dalam keadaan fana, dia mempermudah kemasukannya yang tidak terhalang di Nitya Bihar dan selalu menikmati keredhaan Tuhan. Dia memilih daerah terpencil dan berhutan, Kunj, di Nidhivan sebagai pintu masuk ke nirvana dan kebanyakannya duduk di sana, menyanyi, bertafakur dan berselancar di lautan kebahagiaan abadi.

Murid-muridnya ingin tahu tempat ini dan suatu hari dengan izin Swamiji, mereka semua memasuki kunj. Tetapi bukannya melihat apa-apa, mereka hampir dibutakan oleh cahaya yang terang dan kuat, yang seolah-olah memenuhi seluruh tempat. Setelah mengetahui nasib mereka, Swamiji sendiri pergi ke sana, dan kemudian setelah permintaannya, tuan itu muncul secara pribadi dengan permaisuri ilahi-Nya, tersenyum gembira dan dalam suasana suka bermain dan memberikan mantra terpesona pada setiap makhluk yang ada di sana. Mereka yang menyaksikan ini, sangat terpesona oleh keindahan Tuhan dan permaisuri, sehingga mereka bahkan tidak dapat mengedipkan mata mereka sehingga nampaknya semuanya berubah menjadi patung batu.

Legenda seperti yang diturunkan kepada generasi Goswamis, mengatakan bahawa keindahan pasangan ilahi itu sedemikian rupa sehingga tidak ada yang ingin kehilangan penglihatan dan kedekatan ketuhanan, tetapi kemudian jenis keilahian apa yang tidak dapat membuat kehancuran fana dan cukup terpesona untuk melupakan dan menyerahkan dunia dan kemewahannya? Keindahan pasangan ilahi sangat banyak sehingga manusia yang lebih rendah, seperti anda dan saya, tidak akan dapat menanggung keindahan syurgawi. Merasakan Swami Haridasji ini meminta mereka berdua untuk mengambil satu bentuk, kerana dunia tidak akan dapat menanggung imej mereka. Dia meminta mereka untuk mengambil bentuk tunggal seperti Ghan (awan) dan Damini (kilat), sehingga memberikan kiasan yang sempurna untuk keindahan gabungan Tuhan gelap dan permaisuri yang adil, Radhaji.

Juga dia mahu tuannya yang dikasihi selalu berada di depan matanya. Dengan mengabulkan kedua-dua hasratnya, pasangan itu berubah menjadi satu idola menawan hitam tunggal, yang sama seperti yang anda lihat di kuil hari ini. Daya tarikan dan keindahan Shri Bankey Bihariji adalah satu-satunya sebab mengapa 'darshan' di kuil tidak pernah berterusan tetapi dilanggar oleh tirai yang selalu dilampirkan kepadanya. Dikatakan juga bahawa jika seseorang menatap mata Shri Bankey Bihariji cukup lama, orang itu akan kehilangan kesadaran diri.

Oleh itu wujud wujud bentuk fizikal Lord Bankey Bihari, yang terkenal sebagai Bihariji. Tanggungjawab Sewa Bihariji diserahkan kepada Goswami Jagannath oleh Swamiji sendiri. Goswami Jagannath adalah salah seorang murid utama dan adik lelaki Swamiji. Menurut tradisi, Sewa dilakukan oleh keturunan Jagannath Goswami hingga hari ini.

Pada mulanya, dewa itu dipasang di sebuah kuil yang hampir dengan penampilan pertama di Nidhivan. Sebuah kuil baru yang sesuai dengan kemuliaan Bihariji dibina pada tahun 1862 Masihi. Goswamis sendiri menggerakkan sumber untuk pembinaan tersebut. Kuil ini mempunyai keindahan seni bina dan mengikut gaya Rajasthani kontemporari.

Penyewaan Bihariji unik dengan caranya sendiri. Ia dilakukan dalam tiga bahagian setiap hari iaitu Shringar, Rajbhog dan Shayan. Sementara shringar (yang meliputi mandi, berpakaian dan perhiasan dengan perhiasan seperti mahkota dan kalung) dan Rajbhog (hari raya) ditawarkan pada waktu tengah hari, Shayan Sewa (shayan bermaksud tidur) ditawarkan pada waktu malam. Kuil ini tidak mempunyai tradisi sewa Mangala (awal pagi). Swami Haridas tidak menyebelahi Mangla Sewa kerana dia mahu anaknya seperti Tuhan berehat sepenuhnya dan tidak mahu mengganggunya dari tidur nyenyak sehingga awal pagi.

Jadi, bait suci hari ini berdiri dengan penuh kemuliaan, di mana Tuhan sendiri berada. Ia dikerumuni oleh ribuan pengunjung setiap hari.

Pautan WIKIPEDIA. http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banke_Bihari_Temple :

Selepas kejadian ini, Vasudeva meminta imam keluarganya Garga Muni mengunjungi tempat Nanda Maharaja untuk mengira secara astrologi kehidupan masa depan Krsna. Garga Muni adalah seorang bijaksana suci yang hebat yang menjalani banyak pertolongan dan penebusan dosa dan diangkat menjadi imam dinasti Yadu. When Garga Muni arrived at the home of Nanda Maharaja, Nanda Maharaja was very pleased to see him and immediately stood up with folded hands and offered his respectful obeisances. He received Garga Muni with the feeling of one who is worshiping God or the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He offered him a nice sitting place, and when he sat down, Nanda Maharaja offered him a warm reception. Addressing him very politely, he said: "My dear brahmana, your appearance in a householder's place is only to enlighten. We are always engaged in household duties and are forgetting our real duty of self-realization. Your coming to our house is to give us some enlightenment about spiritual life. You have no other purpose to visit householders." Actually a saintly person or a brahmana has no business visiting householders who are always busy in the matter of dollars and cents. If it is asked, "Why don't the householders go to a saintly person or abrahmana for enlightenment?" the answer is that householders are very poor-hearted. Generally householders think that their engagement in family affairs is their prime duty and that self-realization or enlightenment in spiritual knowledge is secondary. Out of compassion only, saintly persons and brahmanas go to householders' homes.

Nanda Maharaja addressed Garga Muni as one of the great authorities in astrological science. The foretellings of astrological science, such as the occurrence of solar or lunar eclipses, are wonderful calculations, and by this particular science, a person can understand the future very clearly. Garga Muni was proficient in this knowledge. By this knowledge one can understand what his previous activities were, and by the result of such activities one may enjoy or suffer in this life.

Nanda Maharaja also addressed Garga Muni as the "best of the brahmanas." Abrahmana is one who is expert in the knowledge of the Supreme. Without knowledge of the Supreme Absolute, one cannot be recognized as a brahmana. The exact word used in this connection isbrahmavidam, which means those who know the Supreme very well. An expertbrahmana is able to give reformatory facilities to the sub-castes--namely theksatriyas dan vaisyas. The sudras observe no reformatory performances. Thebrahmana is considered to be the spiritual master or priest for the ksatriya dan vaisya.Nanda Maharaja happened to be a vaisya,and he accepted Garga Muni as a first classbrahmana. He therefore offered his two foster sons--namely Krsna and Balarama--to him to purify. He agreed that not only these boys, but all human beings just after birth should accept a qualified brahmana as spiritual master.

Upon this request, Garga Muni replied, "Vasudeva has sent me to see to the reformatory performances of these boys, especially Krsna's. I am their family priest, and incidentally, it appears to me that Krsna is the son of Devaki." By his astrological calculation, Garga Muni could understand that Krsna was the son of Devaki but that He was being kept under the care of Nanda Maharaja, which Nanda did not know. Indirectly he said that Krsna, as well as Balarama, were both sons of Vasudeva. Balarama was known as the son of Vasudeva because His mother Rohini was present there, but Nanda Maharaja did not know about Krsna. Garga Muni indirectly disclosed the fact that Krsna was the son of Devaki. Garga Muni also warned Nanda Maharaja that if he would perform the reformatory ceremony, then Kamsa, who was naturally very sinful, would understand that Krsna was the son of Devaki and Vasudeva. According to astrological calculation, Devaki could not have a female child, although everyone thought that the eighth child of Devaki was female. In this way Garga Muni intimated to Nanda Maharaja that the female child was born of Yasoda and that Krsna was born of Devaki, and they were exchanged. The female child, or Durga, also informed Kamsa that the child who would kill him was already born somewhere else. Garga Muni stated, "If I give your child a name and if He fulfills the prophecy of the female child to Kamsa, then it may be that the sinful demon will come and kill this child also after the name-giving ceremony. But I do not want to become responsible for all these future calamities."

On hearing the words of Garga Muni, Nanda Maharaja said, "If there is such danger, then it is better not to plan any gorgeous name-giving ceremony. It would be better for you to simply chant the Vedic hymns and perform the purificatory process. We belong to the twice-born caste, and I am taking this opportunity of your presence. So please perform the name-giving ceremony without external pomp." Nanda Maharaja wanted to keep the name-giving ceremony a secret and yet take advantage of Garga Muni's performing the ceremony.

When Garga Muni was so eagerly requested by Nanda Maharaja, he performed the name-giving ceremony as secretly as possible in the cowshed of Nanda Maharaja. He informed Nanda Maharaja that Balarama, the son of Rohini, would be very pleasing to His family members and relatives and therefore would be called Rama. In the future He would be extraordinarily strong and therefore would be called Balarama. Garga Muni said further, "Because your family and the family of the Yadus are so intimately connected and attracted, therefore His name will also be Sankarsana." This means that Garga Muni awarded three names to the son of Rohini--namely Balarama, Sankarsana, and Baladeva. But he carefully did not disclose the fact that Balarama also appeared in the womb of Devaki and was subsequently transferred to the womb of Rohini. Krsna and Balarama are real brothers, being originally sons of Devaki.

Garga Muni then informed Nanda Maharaja, "As far as the other boy is concerned, this child has taken different bodily complexions in different yugas[millennia]. First of all He assumed the color white, then He assumed the color red, then the color yellow and now He has assumed the color black. Besides that, He was formerly the son of Vasudeva therefore His name should be Vasudeva as well as Krsna. Some people will call Him Krsna, and some will call Him Vasudeva. But one thing you must know: This son has had many, many other names and activities due to His different pastimes."

Garga Muni gave Nanda Maharaja a further hint that his son will also be called Giridhari because of His uncommon pastimes of lifting Govardhana Hill. Since he could understand everything past and future, he said, "I know everything about His activities and name, but others do not know. This child will be very pleasing to all the cowherd men and cows. Being very popular in Vrndavana, He will be the cause of all good fortune for you. Because of His presence, you will overcome all kinds of material calamities, despite opposing elements."

Garga Muni continued to say, "My dear King of Vraja, in His previous births, this child many times protected righteous persons from the hands of rogues and thieves whenever there was political disruption. Your child is so powerful that anyone who will become a devotee of your boy will never be troubled by enemies. Just as demigods are always protected by Lord Visnu, so the devotees of your child will always be protected by Narayana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This child will grow in power, beauty, opulence--in everything--on the level of Narayana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore I would advise that you protect Him very carefully so that He may grow without disturbance."

Garga Muni further informed Nanda Maharaja that because he was a great devotee of Narayana, Lord Narayana gave a son who is equal to Him. At the same time he indicated, "Your son will be disturbed by so many demons, so be careful and protect Him." In this way, Garga Muni convinced Nanda Maharaja that Narayana Himself had become his son. In various ways he described the transcendental qualities of his son. After giving this information, Garga Muni returned to his home. Nanda Maharaja began to think of himself as the most fortunate person, and he was very satisfied to be benedicted in this way.

A short time after this incident, both Balarama and Krsna began to crawl on Their hands and knees. When They were crawling like that, They pleased Their mothers. The bells tied to Their waist and ankles sounded fascinating, and They would move around very pleasingly. Sometimes, just like ordinary children, They would be frightened by others and would immediately hurry to Their mothers for protection. Sometimes They would fall into the clay and mud of Vrndavana and would approach Their mothers smeared with clay and saffron. They were actually smeared with saffron and sandalwood pulp by Their mothers, but due to crawling over muddy clay, They would simultaneously smear Their bodies with clay. As soon as They would come crawling to Their mothers, Yasoda and Rohini would take Them on their laps and, covering the lower portion of their saris, allow Them to suck their breasts. When the babies were sucking their breasts, the mothers would see small teeth coming in. Thus their joy would be intensified to see their children grow. Sometimes the naughty babies would crawl up to the cowshed, catch the tail of a calf and stand up. The calves, being disturbed, would immediately begin running here and there, and the children would be dragged over clay and cow dung. To see this fun, Yasoda and Rohini would call all their neighboring friends, the gopis. Upon seeing these childhood pastimes of Lord Krsna, thegopis would be merged in transcendental bliss. In their enjoyment they would laugh very loudly.

Both Krsna and Balarama were so restless that Their mothers Yasoda and Rohini would try to protect Them from cows, bulls, monkeys, water, fire and birds while they were executing their household duties. Always being anxious to protect the children and to execute their duties, they were not very tranquil. In a very short time, both Krsna and Balarama began to stand up and slightly move on Their legs. When Krsna and Balarama began to walk, other friends of the same age joined Them, and together They began to give the highest transcendental pleasure to the gopis,specifically to mother Yasoda and Rohini.

Semua gopi friends of Yasoda and Rohini enjoyed the naughty childish activities of Krsna and Balarama in Vrndavana. In order to enjoy further transcendental bliss, they all assembled and went to mother Yasoda to lodge complaints against the restless boys. When Krsna was sitting before mother Yasoda, all the elderly gopis began to lodge complaints against Him so that Krsna could hear. They said, "Dear Yasoda, why don't you restrict your naughty Krsna? He comes to our houses along with Balarama every morning and evening, and before the milking of the cows They let loose the calves, and the calves drink all the milk of the cows. So when we go to milk the cows, we find no milk, and we have to return with empty pots. If we warn Krsna and Balarama about doing this, They simply smile charmingly. We cannot do anything. Also, your Krsna and Balarama find great pleasure in stealing our stock of yogurt and butter from wherever we keep it. When Krsna and Balarama are caught stealing the yogurt and butter, They say, 'Why do you charge Us with stealing? Do you think that butter and yogurt are in scarcity in Our house?' Sometimes They steal butter, yogurt and milk and distribute them to the monkeys. When the monkeys are well fed and do not take any more, then your boys chide, 'This milk and butter and yogurt are useless--even the monkeys won't take it.' And They break the pots and throw them hither and thither. If we keep our stock of yogurt, butter and milk in a solitary dark place, your Krsna and Balarama find it in the darkness by the glaring effulgence of the ornaments and jewels on Their bodies. If by chance They cannot find the hidden butter and yogurt, They go to our little babies and pinch their bodies so that they cry, and then They go away. If we keep our stock of butter and yogurt high on the ceiling, hanging on a swing, although it is beyond Their reach, They arrange to reach it by piling all kinds of wooden crates over the grinding machine. And if They cannot reach, They make a hole in the pot. We think therefore that you better take all the jeweled ornaments from the bodies of your children."

On hearing this, Yasoda would say, "All right, I will take all the jewels from Krsna so that He can not see the butter hidden in the darkness." Kemudian gopis would say, "No, no, don't do this. What good will you do by taking away the jewels? We do not know what kind of boys these are, but even without ornaments They spread some kind of effulgence so that even in darkness They can see everything." Then mother Yasoda would inform them, "All right, keep your butter and yogurt carefully so that They may not reach it." In reply to this, the gopissaid, "Yes, actually we do so, but because we are sometimes engaged in our household duties, these naughty boys enter our house somehow or other and spoil everything. Sometimes being unable to steal our butter and yogurt, out of anger They pass urine on the clean floor and sometimes spit on it. Just see your boy now--He is hearing this complaint. All day They simply makes arrangements to steal our butter and yogurt, and now They are sitting just like very silent good boys. Just see His face." When mother Yasoda thought to chastise her boy after hearing all the complaints, she saw His pitiable face, and smiling, she did not chastise Him.

Another day, when Krsna and Balarama were playing with Their friends, all the boys joined Balarama and told mother Yasoda that Krsna had eaten clay. On hearing this, mother Yasoda caught hold of Krsna's hand and said, "My dear Krsna, why have You eaten earth in a solitary place? Just see, all Your friends including Balarama are complaining about You." Being afraid of His mother, Krsna replied, "My dear mother, all these boys, including My elder brother Balarama, are speaking lies against Me. I have never eaten clay. My elder brother Balarama, while playing with Me today, became angry, and therefore He has joined with the other boys to complain against Me. They have all combined together to complain so you will be angry and chastise Me. If you think they are truthful, then you can look within My mouth to see whether I have taken clay or not." His mother replied, "All right, if You have actually not taken any clay, then just open Your mouth. I shall see."

When the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna was so ordered by His mother, He immediately opened His mouth just like an ordinary boy. Then mother Yasoda saw within that mouth the complete opulence of creation. She saw the entire outer space in all directions, mountains, islands, oceans, seas, planets, air, fire, moon and stars. Along with the moon and the stars she also saw the entire elements, water, sky, the extensive ethereal existence along with the total ego and the products of the senses and the controller of the senses, all the demigods, the objects of the senses like sound, smell, etc., and the three qualities of material nature. She also could perceive that within His mouth were all living entities, eternal time, material nature, spiritual nature, activity, consciousness and different forms of the whole creation. Yasoda could find within the mouth of her child everything necessary for cosmic manifestation. She also saw, within His mouth, herself taking Krsna on her lap and having Him sucking her breast. Upon seeing all this, she became struck with awe and began to wonder whether she were dreaming or actually seeing something extraordinary. She concluded that she was either dreaming or seeing the play of the illusory energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. She thought that she had become mad, mentally deranged, to see all those wonderful things. Then she thought, "It may be cosmic mystic power attained by my child, and therefore I am perplexed by such visions within His mouth. Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead under whose energy bodily self and bodily possessions are conceived." She then said, "Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto Him, under whose illusory energy I am thinking that Nanda Maharaja is my husband and Krsna is my son, that all the properties of Nanda Maharaja belong to me and that all the cowherd men and women are my subjects. All this misconception is due to the illusory energy of the Supreme Lord. So let me pray to Him that He may protect me always."

While mother Yasoda was thinking in this high philosophical way, Lord Krsna again expanded His internal energy just to bewilder her with maternal affection. Immediately mother Yasoda forgot all philosophical speculation and accepted Krsna as her own child. She took Him on her lap and became overwhelmed with maternal affection. She thus began to think, "Krsna is not understandable to the masses through the gross process of knowledge, but He can be received through the Upanisads and the Vedanta or mystic Yoga system and Sankhya philosophy." Then she began to think of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as her own begotten child.

Certainly mother Yasoda had executed many, many pious activities as a result of which she got the Absolute Truth, Supreme Personality of Godhead, as her son who sucked milk from her breast. Similarly, Nanda Maharaja also must have performed many great sacrifices and pious activities for Lord Krsna to become his son and address him as father. But it is surprising that Vasudeva and Devaki did not enjoy the transcendental bliss of Krsna's childhood pastimes, although Krsna was their real son. The childhood pastimes of Krsna are glorified even today by many sages and saintly persons, but Vasudeva and Devaki could not enjoy such childhood pastimes personally. The reason for this was explained by Sukadeva Gosvami to Maharaja Pariksit as follows.

When the best of the Vasus of the name Drona along with his wife Dhara were ordered to increase progeny by Lord Brahma, they said unto him, "Dear father, we are seeking your benediction." Drona and Dhara then took benediction from Brahma that in the future--when they would take birth again within the universe--the Supreme Lord Krsna in His most attractive feature of childhood would absorb their whole attention. Their dealings with Krsna would be so powerful that simply by hearing of Krsna's childhood activities with them, anyone could very easily cross over the nescience of birth and death." Lord Brahma agreed to give them the benediction, and as a result the same Drona appeared as Nanda Maharaja in Vrndavana, and the same Dhara appeared as mother Yasoda, the wife of Nanda Maharaja.

In this way, Nanda Maharaja and his wife, mother Yasoda, developed their unalloyed devotion for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, having gotten Him as their son. And all the gopis and cowherd men who were associates of Krsna naturally developed their own different feelings of love for Krsna.

Therefore, just to fulfill the benediction of Lord Brahma, Lord Krsna appeared along with His plenary expansion, Balarama, and performed all kinds of childhood pastimes in order to increase the transcendental pleasure of all residents of Vrndavana.

Thus ends the Bhaktivedanta purport of the Eighth Chapter of Krsna, "Vision of the Universal Form."


Best time to visit Chokhi Dhani

The place is at prime beauty throughout the year. However, summer and monsoon are usually avoided because of the climate being a hindrance to sightseeing and outdoor activities.

The best time to visit is from October to March. This is the winter season and you can enjoy a pleasing climate. Moreover, since it is the tourism season, you can find a long list of activities to enjoy inside the resort.


An Indian Woman&aposs Beauty

Culture and values

More modern styles and the Western trend of doing things has led to Indian women shedding their traditional outlook to some extent. These trends have led to the apparel changing a bit. Their lifestyles change, as well — many Indian women move out of their homes earlier than did did before, while some modern girls have adapted habits of drinking and smoking, and so forth.

However, this is not all Indian women. In fact, the above mentioned ladies account for less than 1% of the population in India. The majority of our ladies are still God-gearing, kindhearted, and committed and devoted to their life partner only. The values of family still hold strong and true for these women. These all play a role in the cultural beauty of an Indian woman.

Facial features

The majority of Indian ladies have one of the following type of facial shape:

  1. Round face
  2. Triangular face
  3. Square-shape.
  • The last one is not as common as the first two.
  • Nose. The most attractive part on a person&aposs face is the nose. Beautiful Indian women have finely-shaped noses — they are either triangular or small. The smooth tip makes it appear nicer.
  • Eyes. The eyes will be largely black, with brown eyes being a close second. However blue eyes are very, very rare for Indian women.
  • A saree is the most suited dress for traditional Indian women.
  • Churidars are also equally respected and make up a proper outfit.
  • Skirts are not usually worn by majority of married indian women, though they aren&apost prohibited.
  • Jeans and shirts are not also seen on Indian ladies these days. However they are mostly donned by educated ladies, college students, and those living in cities and big towns.
  • Wearing a loose top-like jubba (shirt) is now on the way to gaining acceptance as an honourable outfit. In big cities, adult ladies also wear jeans and tight shirts, which gives a sexy look.
  • The younger generation is definitely developing a leaning towards sexy dresses, due to the influence of western trends.
  • Properly worn dresses in general almost always enhances one&aposs beauty.

Indian ladies have taken care of dressing themselves for a long time. In olden times, even in Ashrams of Saints, it is said that ladies used to decorate themselves, with flowers. Even today, donning oneself with flowers as a part of their accessories or outfit can be considered a unique preference for Indian ladies. Sarees are also uniquely Indian for thousands of years.

Indian culture also views its gods and goddesses also as beautiful individuals. For example, Lakshmi (the goddess of wealth), Saraswathi (the goddess of knowledge and learning), Parvathi (the wife of Lord Shiva), are all very beautiful. Prayer verses praising their beauty have been sung for thousands of years now. It is said that their beauty is the symbol of their bounty.

"Sathyam, Shivam, Sundaram"

In Indian culture, beauty is considered as the expression of godliness.

  • "That is beautiful, which is favorable to all," says a Samskrit hymn.
  • The actual meaning of the word "Shivam" is also a favorite. "The beauty is that which does good to all." Meaning that even if a person seems facially attractive with nice features, they are not truly beautiful unless they do good things.

A Malayalam film actress from modern times. Ms. Kavya Madhavan&aposs expression of sadness.

She is not expressing happiness.


Jonathan Edwards

At age 14, Jonathan Edwards, already a student at Yale, read philosopher John Locke with more delight "than the most greedy miser finds when gathering up handfuls of silver and gold, from some newly discovered treasure."

He also was a young man with profound spiritual sensitivities. At age 17, after a period of distress, he said holiness was revealed to him as a ravishing, divine beauty. His heart panted "to lie low before God, as in the dust that I might be nothing, and that God might be all, that I might become as a little child."

This combination of intellect and piety characterized Edward's whole life.

Garis Masa

Rembrandt paints Return of the Prodigal Son

Dispassionate revivalist

Edwards was born in East Windsor, Connecticut, and he received his master's degree from Yale in 1722. He apprenticed for his grandfather, Solomon Stoddard, for two years before he became, in 1729, the sole preacher of the Northampton, Massachusetts, parish.

In the meantime, when he was 20, he had met Sarah Pierrepont. Their wedding followed four years of often agonizing courtship for the gawky and intense Edwards, but in the end, their marriage proved deeply satisfying to both. Edwards described it as an "uncommon union," and in a sermon on Genesis 2:21&ndash25, he said, "When Adam rose from his deep sleep, God brought woman to him from near his heart." They eventually had 11 children.

In 1734 Edwards's preaching on justification by faith sparked a different sort of devotion: a spiritual revival broke out in his parish. In December there were six sudden conversions. By spring there were about thirty a week.

It was not due to theatrics. One observer wrote, "He scarcely gestured or even moved, and he made no attempt by the elegance of his style or the beauty of his pictures to gratify the taste and fascinate the imagination." Instead he convinced "with overwhelming weight of argument and with such intenseness of feeling."

Edwards kept a careful written account of his observations and noted them in A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God (1737), and his most effective sermons were published as Justification by Faith (1738), which were widely read in America and England. These works helped fuel the Great Awakening a few years later (1739&ndash1741), during which thousands were moved by the preaching of Britain's George Whitefield. Whitefield had read Edwards's book and made it a point to visit him when he came to America. Edwards invited Whitefield to preach at his church and reported, "The congregation was extraordinarily melted . almost the whole assembly being in tears for a great part of the time." The "whole assembly" included Edwards himself.

During the Great Awakening, Edwards contributed perhaps the most famous sermon in American history, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God." Unfortunately it has since cast Edwards as an emotional and judgmental revivalist, when in fact he preached it as dispassionately as any of his sermons.

In spite of his dispassionate style, Edwards insisted that true religion is rooted in the affections, not in reason. He defended the emotional outbursts of the Great Awakening, especially in Treatise on Religious Affections (1746), a masterpiece of psychological and spiritual discernment, and in Some Thoughts Concerning the Present Revival of Religion in New England (in which he included an account of his wife's spiritual awakening).

And in a day when psalm-singing was almost the only music to be heard in congregational churches, Edwards encouraged the singing of new Christian hymns, notably those of Isaac Watts.

Newton and the Bible

Edwards regarded personal conversion as critical, so he insisted that only persons who had made a profession of faith, which included a description of their conversion experience, could receive Communion. This reversed the policy of his grandfather and alienated his congregation, which ousted him in 1750.

For the next few years, he was a missionary pastor to Native Americans in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, and wrote, among other theological treatises, Freedom of the Will (1754), a brilliant defense of divine sovereignty. In it he argued that we are free to do whatever we want, but we will never want to do God's will without a vision of his divine nature imparted by the Spirit. Fascinated by Newtonian physics and enlightened by Scripture, Edwards believed that God's providence was literally the binding force of atoms&mdashthat the universe would collapse and disappear unless God sustained its existence from one moment to the next. Scripture affirmed his view that Christ is "upholding all things by his word of power" (Heb. 1:3 RSV). Such were the fruits of his lifelong habit of rising at 4:00 a.m. and studying 13 hours a day.

The College of New Jersey (later Princeton) called him as president in 1758. But soon after his arrival, Edwards died of the new smallpox vaccination. He was 55.

He left no small legacy: Edwards is considered (some would say with Reinhold Niebuhr) America's greatest theologian.


Culture and Tradition of Jammu Kashmir

Jammu Kashmir is a diverse blend of various cultures People from different religious and social practices of Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and Buddhist have created a composite culture of the state which is called Kashmiriyat. Kashmiri comprises of Kashmiri Pundits, Kashmiri Muslims, Gurjars, and Rajasthani Rajputs.

Kashmiri Weddings traditions are full of joyful and traditional ceremonies. Emphasis is also laid into matching the background, status, and reputation of the family of the prospective match.


Meenakari Jewelry - An Ancient Indian Jewelry Tradition

Jewelry is such a fascinating field that the desire to create a better piece than before has always kept the jewelry designers busy in experimenting with new designs using new materials. Even people who love to adorn jewelry find the idea of experimenting with different metals and designs refreshing. This certainly heightens the fashion quotient of the person wearing it as variety is what the modern generation always demands for.


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Modern Day Jewelry of the Indian Bride

Bridal jewelry gains the maximum attention of all due to its exquisite designs and the aura attached to it which gives a charismatic look to the bride. However the modern age prefers some new styles in bridal designs as well in order to give a perfect blend of modern and traditional appearance to the bride on the most important event of her life.

The most important influence over bridal jewelry in India has been brought by Kundan, Rajasthani Meenakari and Thewa works which play a pivotal role in shaping the beautiful designs and carving the shapes of the modern day jewelry of the Indian bride.

Characteristics of Bridal Jewelry Collection

Here is a list of the basic features of the bridal jewelry collection:

  • The symbol of rich culture with a traditional value attached to it.
  • Exquisite look to give a divine appearance to the bride on the occasion.
  • Uniqueness brought out with the modern touch to make it a valuable gift.


Image Credit: http://www.fashionmover.com/awesome-indian-wedding-jewelry-collection-2015/.html/awesome-indian-wedding-jewelry-collection-2015-4

So, it basically consists of the blend of the best characteristics of traditional jewelry from all the parts of India. Delicate minute detailing, potential use of precious gem stones and exquisite meena works and intricacy of the design form an important part of Indian bridal jewelry.

Influence of Rajasthan’s Meenakari on Bridal Jewelry

Dazzling meenakari works of Rajasthan has greatly influenced the bridal jewelry collection of India. The beauty of this art lies in the intensity of technical skills required for its creation which gives perfection to the ornaments with meenakari designs.

Raja Man Singh of Mewar is regarded as the patron of the meenakari art in 16th century Jaipur due to whose efforts this art gained a wide applaud among the people. Jaipur became the hub of meenakari art with the influx of highly skilled craftsman from Lahore. In a few years, the talent of the craftsmen made the place a specialized centre of meenakari designing.


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What is Meenakari?

Meenakari designing basically refers to the process of coating grooves or engravings in ornaments with colored enamels. A wide variety of metals can be used for meenakari designing which include brass, copper, silver and gold. The jewelry highlights depressions similar to a popular design or animal figurines or images of gods and goddess. The idea behind this is to give the appearance of a picture. The look of the pictures is enhanced by filling the enamels which gives a vivid clarity to the theme according to which the grooves were designed. So, meenakari jewelry is used to beautifully express various themes and occasions and give exquisite look to it. This is one of most applauded features of the meenakari technique which distinguishes it from others.

Types of Meenakari Art

There are chiefly two types of meenakari art which are popular. First is “Ek rang khula” and the other type is “Panchrangi meena.”

In Ek rang khula enamel, a single colour is used. When ek rang khula type is used for creating meenakari jewelry for the bride, then it’s a wonderful idea to match the color with the bridal clothes.


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It helps in highlighting the jewelry by accentuating the beauty of the matching earrings, necklaces, bangles and armbands. It is used basically with more sober colors which include mute and white pastels to embellish one’s looks.

The word panchrangi refers to the use of five colours which include white, pale blue, dark blue, red and dark green. These are such vibrant colors that their usage gives an exciting look to the Indian traditional bridal jewelry.

Meenakari works can also be used in addition to Kundan jewelry which gives an amazing look to the Indian brides. Use of various precious and semi precious gemstone in the Meenakari art uplifts the look of the meenakari jewelry to a great level. These designs are such that anybody can wear it to add that glamorous touch to one’s personality. And a bride can adorn it to gain a complete divine look which she is believed to be in Hindu mythology on her wedding day.


Image Credit: http://blog.isharya.com/blog/bid/308123/Behind-the-Scenes-The-Art-of-Meenakari-Enamel-Jewelry

History of Meenakari Jewelry

The art of meenakari involves coloring and ornamenting the surface of metals with the use of brilliant colors in a beautiful design. The word, meenakari, is derived from meena, which is the feminine form of Minoo in Persian, referring to heaven. Meena means the azure color of heaven. This art was invented by the Iranian craftsmen of Sassanid era and spread by Mongols to India and other countries. Jean Chardin, a French tourist who toured Iran during the rule of Safavid referred to an enamel work of Isfahan. This work consisted of a pattern of animals and birds on a floral background of light blue, yellow, green and red colors.

Journey of Meenakari Art

Since ages, gold has been a preferred metal for meenakari art as it has the ability to hold the enamel in a better manner. Not only this, the usage of gold in meenakari works also enhances the luster of the art while bringing out the colors of the enamels beautifully. The usage of silver in meenakari work was introduced later which was mainly used for making bowls, boxes, spoons, and art pieces. Later on, copper was also introduced in meenakari art after the Gold Control Act which forced the meenakars of India to look for metals other than gold for creating meeenakari jewelry and other art pieces.


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In the initial stages, the works of meenakari couldn’t gain wide recognition as the technique was used as backing for the popular stone-studded jewelry and kundan jewelry. The most fascinating quality of this jewelry lies in its reversibility as it can be reversed and worn by the wearer to enjoy different patterns in the same piece of jewelry.

Process of Creating Meenakari Jewelry

The first step involves the designer who is called as chitera and then goes to the goldsmith who engraves the design. The enamelist applies the colour and the polisher, the stone-setter, and the stringer form an integral part of the important chain of craftsmen who help in creating the finished product.


Image Credit: http://www.dsource.in/resource/kundan/process/meenakari/meenakari-%2014.html/

Surface of the metal is engraved with intricate designs by the meenakars using a metal stylus and later filled with colors. After that, the meena is placed in a furnace where the colors get fused and hardened and appear uniform to the surface. Thereafter a mixture of lemon and tamarind is used to gently rub the surface and get the luster of each color highlighted.


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Enamel colors chiefly consist of metal oxides mixed with a tint of finely powdered glass. The color yellow is obtained by using chromate of potash, violet is obtained through carbonate of manganese, green through copper oxide, blue through cobalt oxide, brown through red oxide, and black through manganese, iron, and cobalt. The brilliant red is the most difficult color to be created. The colors are applied on the metal as per their level of hardness keeping the hardest as the first. Before the application of enamel, it is necessary to clean the surface of the ornament. To get the true colors, the mixtures are fired in the kiln at an average temperature of around 850 degree Celsius.


Image Credit: http://www.dsource.in/resource/kundan/process/meenakari/meenakari-%2022.html

The increased demand for meenakari jewelry in the past few years has certainly proved the growing charm for this art. Available in both traditional and modern designs, it is becoming the first choice for the jewelry lovers.


Tonton videonya: Sangat Menyentuh Hati - Ceramah KH Zainuddin MZ (Ogos 2022).