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Sebahagian daripada surat dari Boston, dibawa oleh Cerberus. - Sejarah

Sebahagian daripada surat dari Boston, dibawa oleh Cerberus. - Sejarah


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Boston, 23 Jun 1775

. Catatan mengenai tindakan di Bunker's Hill, di belakang Charlestown, anda akan ada dalam surat Jeneral Gage dan Jeneral Howe. Saya hanya akan memberitahu anda bahawa Jeneral Howe dihantar dengan dua ribu lima ratus orang, atau lebih baik lagi, untuk mengeluarkan satu pasukan kita di Bunker's Hill. Ketika pasukan memulakan perarakan mereka, kapal-kapal itu melemparkan bangkai ke Charlestown dan membakarnya sepenuhnya. Ia adalah bandar yang indah! tetapi sekarang tidak ada satu rumah yang berdiri! Ia hanyalah timbunan runtuhan. Biarkan perselisihan ini berakhir dengan cara yang mana sekalipun, walaupun anda tidak pernah dapat menaklukkan kami, wilayah yang pernah adil dan mewah ini hancur! Seluruh Amerika akan membalas dendam perjuangan kita.

Pada serangan pertama pasukan anda memberi jalan; mereka tidak mengharapkan api yang begitu berat. Jeneral Howe mengumpulkan mereka; hampir satu minit dia sendirian; kem bantuannya terbunuh di sisinya. Para pegawai membesarkan orang-orang itu dan menderita kerana ketakutan mereka. Jeneral Clinton bersama pasukan lain mengikuti. Jeneral Putnam, yang tidak mempunyai 4000 orang Connecticut, menyangka seluruh tentera datang dan tanpa gangguan sedikitpun, atau bahkan mengejar satu langkah, meninggalkan Bukit Buncker dan pergi ke bukit lain, kira-kira setengah batu lebih jauh, di mana dia masih kekal sejak, tanpa sedikit pun gangguan. Sekiranya tentera upahan menawarkan diri untuk berbaris di halaman setelahnya, Jeneral Ward, bersama orang-orangnya di New England, siap memberikan laporan yang baik tentang mereka. .

Percayalah anda tidak boleh berjaya dalam usaha menakluki dan jahat ini. Setiap bukit akan dipertikaikan dengan anda, dan setiap inci tanah. Dua tindakan seperti itu akan menghancurkan tentera anda ....


Kepada John Hancock

Kesempatan segera saya memberi Kongres masalah Surat pada masa ini, adalah untuk memberitahu mereka, bahawa sebagai akibat dari Perintah mereka yang ditandakan dalam Surat Anda Ulto ke-20, saya meletakkan diri saya di bawah rahsia rahsia kepada Kapten McPherson, dan terus memeriksa Rancangannya untuk pemusnahan Armada di Pelabuhan Boston dengan segala perhatian dan perhatian yang Penting untuknya, & pertimbangan saya dapat menyebabkan tetapi tidak cukup senang bertepatan dengan pendapat dengan Tuan itu, dan mendapati bahawa Skimnya akan melibatkan perbelanjaan yang lebih besar daripada (di bawah keraguan saya tentang kejayaannya) dan berlatih Gunnery oleh mereka dia telah yakin, bahawa, sepanjang dia menetapkan prinsip-prinsip yang salah, Skema ini akan membuktikan pengguguran1 — Namun tidak mahu melepaskan projek kegemarannya untuk mengurangkan kekuatan Angkatan Laut o f Great Britain, dia sangat berhasrat membangun sejumlah Row-Gallies untuk tujuan ini tetapi, kerana Kongres saja yang berwibawa untuk mengambil tindakan ini, saya telah menasihatinya (walaupun dia menawarkan untuk terus membangun Bangunan mereka dengan harapannya sendiri sehingga Kongres harus memutuskan) untuk memperbaiki segera ke Philadelphia dengan cadangannya di mana, jika mereka harus dipersetujui, atau Kapal-kapal yang mempunyai kekuatan unggul, yang dapat disetujui oleh kehendak kebanyakan orang lain, harus diselesaikan, dia dapat menetapkan seketika mengenai mereka, dengan semua Bahan di Tempat - di sini mereka harus mengumpulkan - kepadanya oleh itu saya merujuk untuk maklumat lebih lanjut mengenai perkara ini.

Sebuah Kapal yang dikatakan berasal dari Philadelphia, dan menuju ke Boston dengan 120 Pipa Anggur (118 daripadanya selamat) terdampar di suatu tempat yang dipanggil Eastham, di satu Gale of Wind pada 2d Instt - satu lagi dari Boston ke Hallifax dengan Barang kering & ampca (berjumlah pr Invoice hingga kira-kira 240 £ sah) dilumpuhkan di Gale yang sama, dekat Beverly — Cargo's with the Kertas ini, saya telah memesan ke tempat ini, Kapal-kapal yang akan dijaga hingga Pesanan selanjutnya. Saya juga mempunyai Aksi pengambilan Sloop Kayu yang menuju ke Boston, & dibawa ke Portsmouth, oleh salah satu Kapal Bersenjata kami - butir-butir yang belum tiba - dan Instan ini, dua yang lain dari Nova-Scotia ke Boston, dengan Hay, Wood, Stok langsung & ampca oleh yang lain dari Arm'd Schooners kami - ini ada di Plymouth.2

Kemalangan ini, & Tangkapan, menunjukkan perlunya menubuhkan Mahkamah yang tepat tanpa kehilangan masa untuk penguraian harta tanah, dan kesahihan Penyitaan, jika tidak, saya mungkin Terlibat dalam kesulitan yang tidak dapat dipisahkan.3

Tahanan kami, dengan pengurangan Fort Chamblee (di mana Acara gembira yang saya dengan tulus mengucapkan tahniah kepada Kongres) telah meningkat, dan kemungkinan akan Meningkat, saya menyerahkannya kepada Kebijaksanaan Kongres, sama ada, beberapa Bandar Dalam Negeri yang selesa — jauh dari Jalan-jalan raya - tidak seharusnya diberikan kepada mereka - cara perlakuan mereka - Subsidi & ampca - defind, dan seorang Komisaris, atau Ejen yang dilantik untuk melihat bahawa keadilan dilakukan kepada mereka, dan Publick — Akta yang tepat diberikan, & ampca — tanpa kaedah seperti ini diguna pakai, saya khuatir akan ada kekeliruan yang menyedihkan selepas ini, kerana terdapat banyak keluhan pada masa ini.

Saya rasa tanpa Tuan Rumah saya ketika saya memberitahu Kongres pada 5 terakhir saya bahawa saya harus, dalam satu atau dua hari, dapat mengenali mereka mengenai kedudukan Tentara ke dalam Daftar Baru - saya telah berunding dengan Jeneral Tentera ini sejak hari Kamis yang lalu, berusaha untuk menubuhkan Korps Pegawai baru6 tetapi menemui banyak keraguan, & sukar untuk didamaikan, saya tidak dapat mengatakan kapan mereka akan berakhir atau apa yang menjadi Akibatnya, kerana nampaknya ada keengganan dalam Pegawai satu Kerajaan yang bercampur dengan Regim yang sama dengan yang lain & tanpa itu, ramai yang mesti diberhentikan, yang bersedia berkhidmat, walaupun kita secara keseluruhannya berbeza - saya akan mengadakan pertemuan lain hari ini mengenai perniagaan ini, & amp akan memberitahu anda mengenai hasilnya.7

Majlis Pegawai sebulat suara berpendapat bahawa Komando Artileri tidak lagi dapat diteruskan di Colo. Henry Knox Esqr. untuk pertimbangan Kongres. berpendapat bahawa sangat diperlukan, pada masa yang sama, bahawa Rejimen ini terdiri daripada dua Lieutt Colos. dua Jurusan, dan dua belas Syarikat, yang bersetuju dengan rancangan & anggaran yang diserahkan — yang, berbeza dengan penubuhan terakhir, saya dengan senang hati akan diajar.8

Comy Genl tidak akan kembali, saya akan meminta maaf, kerana kesunyian saya menghormati permintaan Expence of the Clerks & ampca yang saya harus dapatkan, bersama dengan yang lain & maju.

Saya tidak mendengar apa-apa mengenai Colo. Arnold sejak Ulto ke-13 — Suratnya, & jurnalnya hingga tarikh itu, akan menyampaikan semua Maklumat yang dapat saya berikan kepadanya9 — Saya rasa dia mesti berada di Quebec. Sekiranya ada kesengsaraan yang terjadi padanya, dia, seperti yang diarahkan, akan mengirimkan Express. Masih belum ada kapal Armd yang dihantar ke St Lawrence. Saya fikir mereka akan bertemu dengan Stores Inward, atau ke luar

Captn Symons di Cerberus akhir-akhir ini dihantar dari Boston ke Falmouth telah menerbitkan Deklarasi Inclos'd di tempat itu11 dan, disyaki bermaksud untuk membuat semacam pengadilan di sana — saya segera menulis surat kepada Colo. Finnie (dari Tentera ini ) yang pergi ke sana atas penggera terakhir, untuk menaikkan semangat Rakyat, & menentangnya sama sekali dalam Acara.12 Falmouth berada 130 Mil dari Kem ini. Saya mempunyai penghormatan dengan hormat Tuan Yr Most Obedt Hble Servt


Kepada John Hancock

Saya mempunyai kehormatan untuk menyampaikan kepada saya Inst 8th. oleh Kapten Macpherson, Sejak itu, saya mempunyai catatan mengenai Schooner Laden Chiefly dengan kayu api dibawa ke Marblehead, oleh Schooner Lee Kapten Manly yang bersenjata. Dia menaiki Master, seorang perantara, dua Marinir, & empat Pelaut, dari orang perang Cerberus, yang telah membuat hadiah Schooner ini beberapa hari sebelumnya, dan Menghantarnya ke Boston.1

Termasuk anda mempunyai Salinan akta yang diluluskan pada Sesi ini, oleh Majlis Yang Berhormat & rumah Perwakilan Provinsi ini. ia menghormati Tangkapan Seperti yang dapat dilakukan oleh Vessel yang dipasang oleh Provinsi atau oleh orang-orang daripadanya2 - Oleh kerana Kapal Bersenjata yang dipasang di wilayah Kontinental tidak berada di bawah Undang-undang ini, saya ingin menyerahkannya kepada Pertimbangan Kongres, untuk menunjukkan cara Ringkas untuk meneruskan, untuk menentukan harta tanah, & amp; cara Mengutuk-dari Hadiah seperti yang telah, atau selepas ini mungkin dibuat, daripada yang dinyatakan dalam akta ini.

Bukankah Mahkamah harus ditubuhkan oleh Pihak Berkuasa Kongres untuk mengambil kesempatan untuk Mengetahui Hadiah yang dibuat oleh kapal-kapal Continental? apa sahaja cara yang mereka senang pakai, ada keperluan mutlak untuk menjadi cepat, kerana saya tidak dapat meluangkan masa dari urusan ketenteraan, untuk memberi perhatian yang sewajarnya kepada perkara-perkara ini3 - penduduk Plymouth telah mengambil Sloop Laden dengan peruntukan & ampa dari Halifax menuju ke Boston, & Penduduk Beverly telah mendapat perlindungan dari salah seorang Schooners yang bersenjata mengambil vesel dari Ir [e] tanah Laden dengan daging lembu, daging babi, mentega & ampa untuk Tempat yang sama, Orang Akhir membawa kertas & Surat sifat yang sangat menarik, yang ada di tangan Majlis Yang Berhormat, yang memaklumkan kepada saya bahawa mereka akan menghantarnya kepada anda melalui Penyampaian ini [.] ke Isi-isi surat-surat ini & Surat-surat yang saya mesti mohon Biarkan untuk mengingatkan anda & Kongres Yang Mulia, yang sekarang akan melihat keperluan mutlak yang ada, menggunakan semua kebijaksanaan mereka untuk menahan usaha keras musuh kita.4

masalah yang saya hadapi dalam Pengaturan Tentera Darat, sebenarnya tidak dapat difahami, banyak Pegawai Dihantar dengan nama mereka untuk Berkhidmat dengan harapan kenaikan pangkat yang lain Tinggal untuk melihat apa kelebihan yang Mereka akan buat untuk diri mereka sendiri, sementara sejumlah yang menolak , sekali lagi Dihantar dalam nama mereka untuk Melayani. Begitu hebatnya Kekeliruan yang timbul dari keadaan ini & banyak keadaan lain yang membingungkan, sehingga saya merasa mustahil untuk menyelesaikan perniagaan yang sangat menarik ini, tepat pada Rencana yang telah diselesaikan dalam Persidangan, 5 hingga saya telah mengikuti Roh, sedekat ini Sifat & keperluan Kes ini harus diakui, Kesukaran dengan Askar adalah lebih besar, memang lebih banyak Oleh itu, jika boleh, daripada dengan Pegawai, mereka tidak akan menyenaraikan sehingga mereka Mengetahui Kolonel mereka, Kolonel Mejar, Kapten & ampa Sehingga adalah mustahak untuk membetulkan perkara pertama kepada Pegawai, yang Akhirnya dilakukan dengan cara tertentu, & amp; Saya telah memberikan pesanan penyenaraian, Tuan Yang di-Pertua boleh menjadi hakim yang lebih mudah daripada yang dapat saya nyatakan, Kebimbangan fikiran yang mesti saya kerjakan pada kesempatan ini terutamanya pada masa ini, ketika kita mungkin menjangkakan musuh akan mulai bertindak, apabila tiba-tiba bahagian penguat mereka yang mana semuanya sudah Datang & selebihnya setiap hari menjatuhkan diri. Saya menghadapi kesusahan lain yang sangat membimbangkan. Senjata Tentara kita Sangat buruk sehingga saya memberi jaminan kepada anda Tuan, Saya Tidak Boleh Menaruh Keyakinan yang tepat pada mereka, Serbuk kami cepat habis, walaupun Oeconomi Penjagaan Yang Ketat & perhatian diberikan kepadanya, Seri Cuaca Cuaca Panjang yang kita miliki telah, memberikan sebahagian besar dari apa yang telah disampaikan kepada orang-orang yang tidak berguna semalam saya mempunyai bukti, sebagai pihak musuh sekitar empat atau lima ratus orang mengambil keuntungan dari arus tinggi, Mendarat di titik Leechmores, yang pada waktu itu berlaku di sebuah Pulau, kami merasa khawatir, & tentu saja Kursus memerintahkan setiap orang untuk memeriksa Cartoucheboxnya, ketika kebenaran benar-benar menarik, & kami diwajibkan untuk menyediakan sebahagian besar dari mereka dengan amunisi baru. Kerosakan yang dilakukan pada ketika itu, adalah pengambilan seorang lelaki yang mengawasi beberapa ekor kuda & Sapi, sepuluh dari yang Kemudian Dibawa mereka, Kolonel Thompson berjalan dengan Rejimen Rifle Men, dan disertai oleh Kolonel Woodbridge dengan sebahagian dari dirinya, & sebahagian dari Rejimen Pattersons, yang dengan berani menyeberangi air & Segera mewajibkan musuh untuk menyerang di bawah Penutup seorang lelaki perang, Bateri Terapung & amp; api Bateri di leher kota Charles, kami mempunyai dua orang-orang kita cedera parah oleh tembakan anggur dari orang perang— & oleh bendera yang dilancarkan hari ini kita diberitahu, musuh Hilang dua orang mereka6 — Saya mempunyai kehormatan untuk memberikan penghormatan terbaik kepada Kongres Tuan Yang Terutama Kebanyakan Obedt H: Sert

LS, dalam tulisan Stephen Moylan, DNA: PCC, item 152 LB, DLC: GW copy, DNA: PCC item 169 copy, NjMoHP Varick transcript, DLC: GW. Kongres membaca surat ini pada 20 Nov.

1. Tuan rumah, Ranger, William McGlathry, diikat ke Salem ketika Cerberus menangkapnya pada 5 November. John Manley menawan semula Ranger dua hari kemudian dari Eastern Point. Untuk penjualan kargo dan pertikaian McGlathry dengan Jonathan Glover mengenai bahagian kapal dan kargo, lihat Jonathan Glover ke GW, 22 November, dan Timothy Pickering ke GW, 8 Disember 1775.

2. Salinan akta yang dilampirkan pada 1 November terdapat dalam DNA: PCC, item 74.

3. Untuk tindakan Kongres mengenai perkara ini, lihat GW ke Hancock, 8 November 1775, n.3.

5. Lihat perjanjian pada 20 Oktober mengenai pemilihan pegawai dalam Prosiding Jawatankuasa Persidangan, 18–24 Oktober 1775, Dokumen II, Minit Persidangan.

6. Untuk pertempuran di Lechmere's Point pada 9 November, lihat Perintah Umum, 10 November, GW ke William Ramsay, 10-16 November, dan GW kepada Joseph Reed, 30 November 1775. Orang perang adalah Scarborough .


Kandungan

Sebelum tahun 1775, British mengenakan cukai dan duti import ke tanah jajahan Amerika, yang ditolak oleh penduduk kerana mereka tidak mempunyai perwakilan Parlimen Britain. Sebagai tindak balas kepada Parti Teh Boston dan tindakan tunjuk perasaan lain, 4.000 tentera Britain di bawah komando Jeneral Thomas Gage dihantar untuk menduduki Boston dan menenangkan Provinsi Massachusetts Bay yang gelisah. [7] Parlimen memberi kuasa kepada Gage, antara tindakan lain, untuk membubarkan pemerintah provinsi setempat (dipimpin oleh John Hancock dan Samuel Adams). Itu diubah menjadi Kongres Provinsi, dan terus bertemu. Kongres Provinsi meminta organisasi milisi tempatan dan menyelaraskan pengumpulan senjata dan persediaan ketenteraan lain. [8] Di bawah syarat-syarat Akta Pelabuhan Boston, Gage menutup pelabuhan Boston, yang menyebabkan banyak pengangguran dan rasa tidak puas hati. [9]

Ketika pasukan Inggeris dihantar untuk merampas bekalan tentera dari kota Concord pada 19 April 1775, syarikat militia dari bandar sekitarnya menentang mereka di Battles of Lexington dan Concord. [10] Di Concord, beberapa pasukan Inggeris diarahkan dalam konfrontasi di Jambatan Utara. Pasukan Inggeris, dalam perjalanan mereka kembali ke Boston, kemudian terlibat dalam pertempuran yang sedang berjalan, mengalami banyak korban. [11] Semua jajahan New England (dan kemudian jajahan lebih jauh ke selatan) mengangkat milisi sebagai tindak balas kepada penggera ini, dan menghantarnya ke Boston. [12]

Tentera Inggeris Sunting

Perintah perang tentera Inggeris pada bulan Julai 1775 adalah: [13]

  • Panglima Tentera Darat Britain di Amerika, Mejar Jeneral Sir William Howe, Viscount Howe ke-5
  • Panglima Jurutera Artileri & amp, Kolonel Cleveland (pegawai komando Batalion ke-4)
    • Syarikat No.1, Batalion ke-4, Artileri Diraja
    • Syarikat No.2, Batalion ke-4, Artileri Diraja
    • No.4 Syarikat, Batalion ke-4, Artileri Diraja
    • No.5 Syarikat, Batalion ke-4, Artileri Diraja
    • No.8 Syarikat, Batalion ke-4, Artileri Diraja
    • x2 Syarikat Orang Kurang Upaya
      (4 Skuadron)
  • Briged ke-1, diperintahkan oleh Brigadier Jeneral Yang Mulia Hugh Percy, Duke ke-2 dari Northumberland
    • Briged ke-2, diperintahkan oleh Brigadier Jeneral Jones
      / Rejimen Kaki ke-65 (gabungan)
    • Batalion ke-2, Marin Diraja

    Edit Tentera Laut Diraja

    Tentera Koloni Bersatu Sunting

    • Tentera Massachusetts (Continental Army), yang diperintahkan oleh Panglima Besar, Jeneral George Washington [15]
      • Panglima Artileri, Brigadier Jeneral Henry Knox

      Menggali Edit

      Sejurus selepas pertempuran pada 19 April, milisi Massachusetts, di bawah kepemimpinan William Heath, yang digantikan oleh General Artemas Ward pada 20, [16] membentuk garis pengepungan yang meluas dari Chelsea, di sekitar semenanjung Boston dan Charlestown , ke Roxbury, dengan berkesan mengelilingi Boston di tiga sisi. Mereka secara khusus menyekat Charlestown Neck (satu-satunya akses darat ke Charlestown), dan Boston Neck (satu-satunya akses darat ke Boston, yang ketika itu semenanjung), hanya meninggalkan akses pelabuhan dan laut di bawah kawalan British. [12]

      Pada hari-hari segera setelah penciptaan garis pengepungan, ukuran kekuatan kolonial bertambah, ketika milisi dari New Hampshire, Rhode Island, dan Connecticut tiba di tempat kejadian. [12] Jeneral Gage menulis tentang kejutannya terhadap jumlah pemberontak yang mengelilingi kota: "Pemberontak bukan calang-calang keji yang terlalu banyak yang seharusnya mereka lakukan. Dalam semua perang mereka melawan Perancis, mereka tidak pernah menunjukkan tingkah laku, perhatian, dan ketabahan seperti yang mereka lakukan sekarang. " [17]

      Jeneral Gage mengalihkan perhatiannya untuk membentengi kedudukan yang mudah dipertahankan. Di selatan, di Roxbury, Gage memerintahkan barisan pertahanan dengan 10 senapang dua puluh empat paun. Di Boston, empat bukit dengan cepat dibentengi. Mereka menjadi pertahanan utama kota. [18] Seiring berjalannya waktu, setiap bukit ini diperkuat. [19] Gage juga memutuskan untuk meninggalkan Charlestown, memindahkan pasukan yang terkepung (yang telah berundur dari Concord) ke Boston. Bandar Charlestown itu sendiri kosong, dan tanah-tanah tinggi di Charlestown (Bukit Bunker dan Bukit Breed) dibiarkan begitu saja, begitu juga dengan ketinggian Dorchester, yang memiliki pemandangan pelabuhan dan kota. [20]

      British pada awalnya sangat menyekat pergerakan masuk dan keluar dari bandar, kerana takut akan kemasukan senjata. Pengepungan dan pengepung akhirnya mencapai perjanjian tidak rasmi yang membenarkan lalu lintas di Boston Neck, dengan syarat tidak ada senjata api yang dibawa. Penduduk Boston menyerahkan hampir 2,000 senapan, dan sebahagian besar penduduk Patriot meninggalkan bandar. [21] Ramai penganut setia yang tinggal di luar bandar Boston meninggalkan kediaman mereka dan melarikan diri ke bandar. Sebilangan besar dari mereka merasakan bahawa tidak selamat untuk tinggal di luar kota, kerana Patriot kini menguasai kawasan luar bandar. [22] Sebilangan lelaki itu, setelah tiba di Boston, bergabung dengan rejimen Loyalis yang melekat pada tentera Inggeris. [23]

      Kerana pengepungan tidak menyekat pelabuhan, kota itu tetap terbuka untuk Tentera Laut Diraja, di bawah Wakil Laksamana Samuel Graves, untuk membawa bekalan dari Nova Scotia dan tempat-tempat lain. Pasukan kolonial tidak dapat menghentikan penghantaran ini kerana ketenteraan tentera laut yang berkuasa. Walaupun begitu, swasta Amerika dapat mengganggu kapal bekalan, dan harga makanan meningkat dengan cepat. Tidak lama kemudian, kekurangan ini memberi kesan kepada tentera Inggeris. Secara amnya, pasukan Amerika dapat mengumpulkan maklumat mengenai apa yang berlaku di bandar ini dari orang-orang yang melarikan diri dari kawasan Boston, tetapi Jeneral Gage tidak mempunyai kecerdasan yang berkesan mengenai kegiatan pemberontak. [24]

      Kemunculan awal Edit

      Pada 3 Mei, Kongres Provinsi Massachusetts memberi kuasa kepada Benedict Arnold untuk meningkatkan kekuatan untuk mengambil Benteng Ticonderoga dekat hujung selatan Tasik Champlain di Provinsi New York, yang diketahui memiliki senjata berat, tetapi hanya dipertahankan dengan ringan. Arnold tiba di Castleton (di mana sekarang Vermont, tetapi kemudian menjadi wilayah pertikaian antara New York dan New Hampshire) pada 9, di mana dia bergabung dengan Ethan Allen dan sebuah syarikat milisi dari Connecticut, yang semuanya secara bebas tiba pada idea mengambil Ticonderoga. Syarikat ini, di bawah kepemimpinan bersama Arnold dan Allen, menawan Fort Ticonderoga dan Fort Crown Point. Mereka juga menangkap satu kapal tentera besar di Tasik Champlain dalam serangan di Fort Saint-Jean. [25] Mereka mendapatkan kembali lebih dari 180 meriam, serta persenjataan dan persediaan lain yang akan didapati berguna oleh Angkatan Darat Benua dalam mengetatkan cengkaman mereka di Boston. [26]

      Boston kekurangan bekalan daging segar secara berkala, dan banyak kuda memerlukan jerami. Pada 21 Mei, Gage memerintahkan pesta untuk pergi ke Pulau Grape, di pelabuhan luar, dan membawa jerami ke Boston. [27] Ketika Benua di daratan memperhatikan hal ini, mereka merasa bimbang, dan milisi dipanggil. Ketika parti Inggeris tiba, mereka diserang tentera. Milisi membakar sebuah gudang di pulau itu, menghancurkan 80 tan rumput kering, dan menghalang British mengambil lebih dari 3 tan. [27]

      Pasukan benua, sebahagiannya sebagai tindak balas terhadap insiden Pulau Grape, berusaha membersihkan pulau-pulau pelabuhan dari ternakan dan bekalan yang berguna untuk British. Pada 27 Mei, dalam Pertempuran Chelsea Creek, Marinir Inggeris berusaha menghentikan pemindahan ternakan dari beberapa pulau. Orang Amerika menentang, dan, semasa tindakan itu, pengganas Inggeris Diana berlari dan dihancurkan, tetapi tidak sebelum Benua berjaya mendapatkan semula senjatanya. [28] Dalam usaha untuk membantu menghentikan pemberontakan, Gage mengeluarkan proklamasi pada 12 Juni yang menawarkan untuk mengampuni semua orang yang akan meletakkan senjata mereka, kecuali John Hancock dan Samuel Adams. [29] [30] Alih-alih memadamkan pemberontakan, ia memicu kemarahan di kalangan Patriot, dan lebih banyak orang mulai mengangkat senjata. [29]

      Edit Breed's Hill

      Sepanjang bulan Mei, British telah menerima bala bantuan, sehingga mereka mencapai kekuatan sekitar 6.000 orang. Pada 25 Mei, tiga Jeneral tiba di HMS Cerberus: William Howe, John Burgoyne, dan Henry Clinton. Gage mula merancang untuk keluar dari bandar. [28]

      Rancangan yang diputuskan oleh perintah Inggeris adalah untuk membentengi Bunker Hill dan Dorchester Heights. Mereka menetapkan tarikh pengambilan Dorchester Heights pada 18 Jun. Pada 15 Jun, Jawatankuasa Keselamatan penjajah mengetahui rancangan British. Sebagai tindak balas, mereka mengirim arahan kepada General Ward untuk membentengi Bunker Hill dan ketinggian Charlestown yang dia memerintahkan Kolonel William Prescott untuk melakukannya. Pada malam 16 Jun, Prescott memimpin 1.200 orang di Charlestown Neck, dan membina kubu di Bunker Hill dan Breed's Hill. [31]

      Pada 17 Jun, dalam Pertempuran Bukit Bunker, pasukan Inggeris di bawah Jeneral Howe mengambil alih semenanjung Charlestown. [32] British berjaya dalam objektif taktikal mereka untuk mengambil tempat tinggi di semenanjung Charlestown, tetapi mereka mengalami kerugian yang besar. Dengan kira-kira 1,000 lelaki terbunuh atau cedera, termasuk 92 pegawai terbunuh, kerugian Inggeris begitu berat sehingga tidak ada lagi serangan langsung ke atas pasukan Amerika. [33] Orang Amerika, ketika kalah dalam pertempuran, sekali lagi menentang tentera tetap Britain dengan beberapa kejayaan, kerana mereka berjaya menangkis dua serangan di Breed's Hill semasa pertunangan. [34] Dari sudut ini, pengepungan pada dasarnya menjadi kebuntuan.

      Suntingan Buntu

      Jeneral George Washington tiba di Cambridge pada 2 Julai. Dia mendirikan markasnya di Rumah Benjamin Wadsworth di Harvard College. [35] Dia mengambil alih komando Tentera Kontinental yang baru dibentuk pada hari berikutnya. Pada masa ini pasukan dan bekalan telah tiba, termasuk syarikat-syarikat senapang dari sejauh Maryland dan Virginia. [36] Washington memulakan pekerjaan membentuk milisi menjadi sesuatu yang lebih mirip dengan tentera, melantik pegawai kanan (di mana militia biasanya memilih pemimpin mereka), dan memperkenalkan lebih banyak tindakan organisasi dan tatatertib kepada milisi yang berkemah. [37]

      Washington mewajibkan pegawai dari pelbagai peringkat untuk memakai pakaian yang membezakan, supaya mereka dapat dibezakan dari bawahan dan atasan mereka. [38] Pada 16 Julai, ia memindahkan markasnya ke Rumah John Vassall, juga di Cambridge, yang kemudiannya akan terkenal sebagai rumah Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Menjelang akhir bulan Julai, kira-kira 2,000 penembak tiba di unit yang dibesarkan di Pennsylvania, Maryland, dan Virginia. Ketepatan senapang itu sebelumnya tidak diketahui di New England, dan kekuatan ini digunakan untuk mengganggu pasukan yang dikepung. [39]

      Washington juga memerintahkan pertahanan dipertingkatkan. Parit digali di Leher Boston, dan kemudian dilanjutkan ke arah Boston. Namun, kegiatan ini tidak banyak mempengaruhi pendudukan Inggeris. [40] Parti kerja dipecat dari semasa ke semasa, seperti juga penjaga yang menjaga pekerjaan. Pada 30 Julai, sebagai pembalasan atas serangan Amerika, British menolak pengawal maju Amerika, dan membakar beberapa rumah di Roxbury. [41] Empat hari kemudian, pada 2 Ogos, seorang seniman Amerika terbunuh, dan tubuhnya digantung di leher. Sebagai pembalasan, penembak Amerika yang lain bergerak ke barisan dan mula menyerang tentera Inggeris. Mereka meneruskan penembakan tajam mereka sepanjang hari, membunuh atau mencederakan banyak orang Inggeris, dan kehilangan satu orang sahaja. [42]

      Pada 30 Ogos, British membuat kejutan dari Boston Neck, membakar sebuah kedai, dan menarik diri dari pertahanan mereka. [42] Pada malam yang sama, 300 orang Amerika menyerang Pulau Mercusuar dan membakar rumah api, membunuh beberapa tentera Britain dan menangkap 23 orang dengan satu nyawa. [42] Pada malam Ogos yang lain, Washington menghantar 1.200 orang untuk menggali kubu di sebuah bukit berhampiran Charlestown Neck. Walaupun pengeboman Inggeris, Amerika berjaya menggali parit. [43]

      Pada awal September, Washington mulai menyusun rancangan untuk dua gerakan: pertama, mengirim 1.000 orang dari Boston dan menyerang Quebec, dan kedua, untuk melancarkan serangan ke Boston. [44] Washington merasa bahawa dia mampu mengirim beberapa pasukan ke Quebec, kerana dia telah menerima intelijen dari para penggurun dan perisik Amerika bahawa Inggeris tidak berniat melancarkan serangan dari Boston sehingga mereka diperkuat. [45] Pada 11 September, kira-kira 1.100 tentera di bawah komando Benedict Arnold berangkat ke Quebec. [46] Washington memanggil dewan perang, dan membuat kasus untuk serangan amfibi habis-habisan di Boston, dengan mengirim pasukan melintasi Back Bay dengan kapal bawah rata yang masing-masing dapat menampung 50 orang. [47] Washington percaya akan sangat sukar untuk bersama-sama lelaki ketika musim sejuk tiba. Dalam dewan perang, rancangan itu ditolak sebulat suara, dan keputusannya tidak menyerang "setidaknya untuk saat ini." [47]

      Pada awal bulan September Washington membenarkan pengambilan dan perlengkapan kapal nelayan tempatan untuk pengumpulan maklumat dan pembatasan bekalan kepada British. Kegiatan ini merupakan pendahulu kepada Angkatan Laut Kontinental, yang ditubuhkan selepas British Burning of Falmouth (sekarang Portland, Maine). Perhimpunan wilayah Connecticut dan Pulau Rhode pada saat itu juga mulai mempersenjatai kapal dan pemberian hak peribadi. [48]

      Pada awal November, 400 tentera Britain pergi ke Lechmere's Point dalam ekspedisi penggerebekan untuk memperoleh beberapa ternakan. Mereka melakukan dengan 10 ekor lembu, tetapi kehilangan dua nyawa dalam pertempuran dengan pasukan penjajah dihantar untuk mempertahankan masalah. [49] [50] Pada 29 November, Kapten kolonial John Manley, memerintahkan pengganas Lee, merebut salah satu hadiah yang paling berharga dari pengepungan itu, brigantine Britain Nancy, tepat di luar Boston Harbour. Dia membawa sejumlah besar barang keperluan dan kedai tentera yang ditujukan untuk tentera Inggeris di Boston. [51]

      Ketika musim sejuk menghampiri, kedua-dua pihak menghadapi masalah mereka sendiri. Orang Amerika begitu kekurangan senjata api sehingga beberapa tentera diberi tombak dan bukannya senjata untuk bertarung sekiranya berlaku serangan Inggeris. [52] Sebilangan besar tentera Amerika tetap tidak dibayar dan banyak pendaftaran mereka akan berakhir pada akhir tahun ini. Di pihak Britain, Howe, yang menggantikan Gage sebagai komandan pada bulan Oktober, menghadapi masalah yang berbeza. Kayu sangat langka sehingga tentera Inggeris terpaksa menebang pokok dan merobohkan bangunan kayu, termasuk Old North Meeting House. [53]

      Sebagai tambahan, bekalan bandar menjadi semakin sukar kerana ribut musim sejuk dan peningkatan pemberontakan. [52] Armada perang Amerika yang diimprovisasi sekitar 12 kapal dagang yang ditukar telah menangkap 55 kapal Inggeris sepanjang musim sejuk. Banyak kapal yang ditangkap telah membawa bekalan makanan kepada tentera Inggeris. [54] Pasukan Inggeris begitu lapar sehingga banyak yang bersedia meninggalkannya secepat mungkin. Lebih teruk, penyakit kudis dan cacar telah merebak di bandar. [55] Tentera Washington menghadapi masalah serupa dengan cacar, kerana tentera dari masyarakat luar bandar terdedah kepada penyakit ini. Washington memindahkan pasukan yang dijangkiti ke hospital yang terpisah, satu-satunya pilihan yang ada memandangkan stigma masyarakat terhadap inokulasi. [56]

      Washington sekali lagi mencadangkan untuk menyerang Boston pada bulan Oktober, tetapi pegawainya berpendapat lebih baik menunggu sehingga pelabuhan itu membeku. [57] Pada bulan Februari, ketika air telah membeku antara Roxbury dan Boston Common, Washington berpendapat bahawa walaupun kekurangan serbuk, dia akan mencuba serangan dengan bergegas menyeberangi es tetapi para pegawainya kembali menyarankannya. Keinginan Washington untuk melancarkan serangan ke Boston timbul dari ketakutannya bahawa tenteranya akan berhenti pada musim sejuk, dan betapa mudahnya dia tahu bahawa Howe dapat mematahkan barisan tenteranya dalam keadaan sekarang. Dia belum belajar bagaimana sepenuhnya dia dapat mempercayai ketidakaktifan Howe, dia meninggalkan serangan di seberang es dengan keengganan besar sebagai pertukaran untuk rancangan yang lebih berhati-hati, untuk membentengi Dorchester Heights menggunakan meriam yang tiba dari Fort Ticonderoga. [58] [59]

      Pada pertengahan Januari, atas pesanan dari London, Mejar Jeneral Britain Henry Clinton dan sebuah armada kecil berlayar ke Carolinas dengan 1,500 orang. Objektif mereka adalah untuk bergabung dengan pasukan tambahan yang tiba dari Eropah, dan mengambil pelabuhan di jajahan selatan untuk operasi ketenteraan selanjutnya. [60] Pada awal Februari pihak penyerbu Inggeris menyeberangi es dan membakar beberapa rumah ladang di Dorchester. [61]


      Kandungan

      Pada tahun 1870, Hugh G. Harrison memberikan wang untuk B.S. Bull and Company, pemborong barang kering yang melayani Minneapolis. Walaupun B.S. Bull and Company berumur pendek, pengasasnya terus membuat syarikat serupa. Pada tahun 1926, nenek moyang langsung SuperValu, Winston dan Syarikat Newell, ditubuhkan dari penggabungan Winston, Harper dan Fisher dan Syarikat Newell, dua syarikat yang diasaskan oleh penyokong B. S. Bull.

      Winston dan Newell adalah anggota piagam dari Independent Grocers Alliance pada tahun 1928, tetapi meninggalkan IGA pada tahun 1942 untuk membentuk "rantai maya" kedai milik bebas yang beroperasi di bawah sepanduk SuperValu dan U-Save. Namun, ia tetap berfungsi sebagai pembekal ke banyak kedai IGA. Konsep ini terbukti berjaya sehingga pada tahun 1952, syarikat tersebut menukar namanya menjadi SuperValu Inc. Nama itu diubah menjadi SuperValu pada tahun 1992.

      Syarikat ini pertama kali disenaraikan di Bursa Saham New York pada tahun 1967. [3]

      Edit Perolehan

      Pada tahun 1963, syarikat tersebut memperoleh Perbadanan Pemasaran Makanan Fort Wayne, Indiana, yang menelusuri akarnya hingga awal tahun 1800-an, sebagai Syarikat Bursley & amp. Pemerolehan Food Marketing membawa SuperValu ke pasaran institusi. [4] George W. McKay, Presiden Pemasaran Makanan, bergabung dengan SuperValu sebagai Naib Presiden Eksekutif dan kemudian sebagai presiden dan Ketua Pegawai Eksekutif SuperValu pada tahun 1970. [5]

      Pada tahun 1971, rangkaian kedai diskaun ShopKo diambil alih oleh SuperValu, Inc., dan dipisahkan pada tahun 1991 untuk membentuk sebuah syarikat yang berasingan dan diperdagangkan secara terbuka. SuperValu retained a 46% interest in the new company, which Shopko later purchased in 1997. SuperValu founded the clothing store County Seat in 1973 and sold it to Carson Pirie Scott in 1983.

      In 1975, SuperValu acquired Hornbacher's. [6]

      In 1980, the company acquired Minnesota-based Cub Foods, which operated five stores in the Twin Cities area. As of 2011, Cub is operating more than 73 stores in Minnesota and Illinois.

      In the early 1990s, SuperValu started acquiring several chains such as Scott's Food & Pharmacy in 1991, Wetterau, Inc. and its holdings Shop 'n Save dan Save-A-Lot in 1992, and bigg's in 1994. Scotts & Biggs have been divested. Biggs was sold to Remke Markets and Kroger bought Scotts. SuperValu acquired Richfood Holdings for $1.5 billion, adding a Mid-Atlantic distribution presence and stores including Farm Fresh Food & Pharmacy, Shoppers Food & Pharmacy, dan Metro.

      In 2003, SuperValu acquired the former Midwest operations of Fleming Companies from C&S Wholesale Grocers, including the Sentry Foods and Festival Foods brands. [7]

      On January 23, 2006, SuperValu announced that it, along with CVS Corporation and a collection of investors led by Cerberus Group, agreed to acquire Albertsons, Inc. for $9.7 billion. The acquisition was completed on June 2, 2006.

      SuperValu acquired over 2150 stores in the deal including:

      • Acme (134 locations) (sold to Cerberus)
      • Acme Express, Jewel Express, dan Albertsons Express (107 fuel centers) (units were divested to various operators)
      • Albertsons (564 locations) (sold to Cerberus)
      • Bristol Farms (15 locations) (later sold off)
      • Jewel dan Jewel-Osco (198 locations sold to Cerberus)
      • Lazy Acres Market (1 location) (later sold off)
      • Max Foods (3 locations) (later rebranded Lucky)
      • Osco Pharmacy dan Sav-on Pharmacy (906 pharmacies) (Stand-alones sold to CVS)
      • Save-A-Lot (2 locations franchised by Shaw's)
      • Shaw's (188 locations) (sold to Cerberus)
      • Star Market (20 locations) (7 re-branded Shaw's) (sold to Cerberus)

      In 2009, former Walmart executive Craig Herkert took over for Jeff Noddle as CEO of SuperValu. [8]

      On January 6, 2011, SuperValu announced it would close 20 underperforming stores. On January 11, 2011, SuperValu reported a loss of $202 million for the quarter revenue also fell 6% to $8.67 billion. Stock prices fell 12 percent to $7.52 per share. [9]

      In September 2011, SuperValu announced the sale of all but 27 of its fuel centers to several convenience store chains, including Tesoro, Holiday Stationstores, Couche-Tard (which operates Circle K Stores), and Stinker Stores. The company announced that it was seeking buyers for the remaining fuel centers as well.

      In 2012, SuperValu operated 2,505 food and food/drug combination stores, 878 in-store pharmacies, and 117 fuel centers and served as primary distributor to an additional 2,200 stores. SuperValu also supplied a network of independent retailers (often found in smaller cities) that sometimes use the SuperValu name. However, these stores were not owned by the company. SuperValu also franchised the Cub Foods and Save-A-Lot brands to independent retailers. The company operated on a strategy of effective and efficient food distribution, conducting its retail food operations through a total of 2,349 retail food stores that were supplied by 32 distribution centers. [10]

      On July 11, 2012, after the close of trading, SuperValu reported net sales of $10.6 billion and net earnings of $41 million for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013, compared to net sales of $11.1 billion and net earnings for $74 million for the year-earlier period. Those results sent SuperValu shares down some 45% after the start of trading on July 12, 2012, and hurt performance of other outstanding SuperValu debt, including its high yield bonds and CDS (credit default swap). [11]

      On July 30, 2012, Craig Herkert was let go as CEO of SuperValu, replaced with Wayne Sales. [12] Sales was CEO of Canadian Tire from 2000 to 2006. [13] [14]

      In January 2013, the company announced it was selling the Acme Markets, Shaw's, and Jewel-Osco chains and their remaining Albertsons stores to Cerberus Capital Management for $100 million in cash with Cerberus assuming $3.2 billion in existing debt. [15] SuperValu would keep its Cub, Farm Fresh, Shoppers Food & Pharmacy and Shop ‘n Save brands as well as its wholesale supply operation while the Acme, Shaw's, Star Market, and Jewel-Osco stores were reunited with Albertsons. [16] The deal closed March 21, 2013. On March 14, 2018 Supervalu announced it would be closing 21 of its 38 Farm Fresh locations, selling 18 to Kroger and 3 to Food Lion. [17]

      On January 13, 2013, Sam Duncan, who had retired as CEO of OfficeMax in 2011, was named CEO of SuperValu. [18] [19] Duncan announced his retirement in October 2015. [19]

      In July 2016, it was announced that SuperValu had entered into a purchase agreement with Ahold and Delhaize Group for 22 Food Lion locations in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia as part of the divestiture of stores to gain clearance from the Federal Trade Commission for the Ahold/Delhaize merger. The 22 stores were rebranded under the Shop ‘n Save retail banner. [20]

      On February 3, 2016, Mark Gross was named CEO of SuperValu, replacing Sam Duncan. [21]

      In October 2016, SuperValu announced they were selling Save-A-Lot to Onex Corporation. [22]

      In April 2017, the company announced that it had entered into a $375 million merger agreement with Unified Grocers, based in Commerce, California, in which Unified Grocers would become a wholly owned subsidiary of SuperValu when the merger is completed. [23] The deal is expected to be finalized in late summer 2017, with the merger process then taking about two years to implement. [23] Later in 2017, SuperValu acquired Associated Grocers of Florida. [24]

      Sale of Company Edit

      On July 26, 2018, United Natural Foods agreed to buy Supervalu for $2.9 billion in cash. [25]

      On October 22, 2018, UNFI completed the acquisition of Supervalu. Sean Griffin was named the CEO of Supervalu, replacing Mark Gross. [26]

      As a supplier to IGA stores for over 80 years, SuperValu necessarily has formed close relationships with these family owned grocery businesses, some of which have had relationships with the corporation for over two or three generations. But Walmart's newly arrived grocery competition to these stores also affects SuperValu, Inc. In addition, SuperValu is selling its Shop 'n' Save stores in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania market as a result of being unable to compete with Walmart and fast-growing local chain Giant Eagle. Most will be sold to independent owners, and continue to operate under the Shop 'n' Save banner. SuperValu will continue to supply all area FoodLand, Save-A-Lot and the independent Shop 'n' Save locations of western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia.

      SuperValu enjoys economies of scale when dealing with the well-known national food firms like Kraft Foods, General Mills, Kellogg's, the beer manufacturers, meat suppliers, produce suppliers and dairy suppliers, as well as the health and beauty product suppliers, by purchasing in bulk and then distributing the goods by Direct Store Delivery from its distribution centers, which are located nationwide.

      The ethnic foods market is an emerging sector and remains a challenge for this business, as well as the natural and organic foods sector, as there are no clear market leaders for the corporation to deal with in these sectors. It remains to be seen whether SuperValu's tradition of dealing with small grocery businesses can be extended to these emerging markets.

      • Arctic Shores
      • Baby Basics
      • Carlita
      • Culinary Circle
      • Equaline
      • Essential Everyday
      • Farm Fresh
      • Farm Stand
      • Flavorite
      • WholeCare Pet
      • Homelife
      • Java Delight
      • Max Velocity
      • NutriPlan
      • Richfood
      • Shoppers Value
      • Stockman & Dakota
      • Stone Ridge Creamery
      • SuperChill
      • SuperCrunch
      • Wild Harvest

      SuperValu also owns two third-party logistics firms, Advantage Logistics and Total Logistic Control. In 2005, SuperValu launched a specialty produce company, W. Newell & Company which is headquartered in Champaign, Illinois.

      As of 2006, SuperValu has a leading market share position in several markets where it has operations.

        (Acme) [a] (Cub Foods) (Hornbacher's) [a] (Jewel, Jewel-Osco) [a] (Albertsons) [a] (Albertsons) [a] (Albertsons) [a] (Albertsons) [a]
        (Farm Fresh Food & Pharmacy) (Shaw's and Star Market) [a] (Albertsons) [a] (Shop 'n Save) (Albertsons) [a] (Albertsons) [a] (Albertsons) [a] (Cub Foods)
        (Shop 'n Save) [a] (Albertsons) [a] /Baltimore, MD (Shoppers) (Albertsons) [a]

      At the time of its acquisition by United Natural Foods in 2018, the company operated under multiple retail banners, or chains:

      • County Market over 100 locations independently owned (Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Wisconsin)
      • Cub Foods 77 locations of which 31 are franchised (Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN and IL.)
      • Festival Foods licensed locations in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan.
      • FoodLand licensed locations in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky.
      • Sentry Foods 6 licensed locations in Wisconsin
      • Shoppers Food & Pharmacy 56 locations (Washington, D.C., Baltimore, MD and Northern VA)
      • Shoppers Value Foods licensed cost-plus supermarkets
      • SuperValu Pharmacies 109 pharmacies (Nationwide)

      Former chains Edit

      SuperValu had previously operated other chains:

      • Acme Markets 117 locations (DE, Eastern & Northern MD, NJ, Eastern PA) Sold to Albertsons LLC
      • Albertsons 453 locations (Southern CA, CO, ID, MT, ND, NV, OR, UT, WA and WY) Sold to Albertsons LLC
      • Acme Express, Albertsons Express dan Jewel Express (nationwide) Fuel centers and convenience stores - sold in 2011
      • bigg's (Cincinnati, OH, Clarksville, IN, and Florence, KY) Locations sold to Remke Markets in 2010
      • Bristol Farms (Southern CA) Spun off in 2010
      • Farm Fresh Food & Pharmacy (Norfolk, Virginia) In 2018, 21 locations sold to The Kroger Co. and Ahold Delhaize and converted to their existing brands, 6 locations were bought by independent franchisers, and the remaining locations closed.
      • Hornbacher's (Fargo-Moorhead/Grand Forks, ND/MN) 8 locations with 7 of those locations were sold to Coborns in 2018, the remaining location was in Grand Forks, North Dakota and closed.
        • Lazy Acres

        These are the current active private label brands for SuperValu:

        • Arctic Shores - Seafood products.
        • Baby Basics - Baby products
        • Carlita - Hispanic foods
        • Cub - Store generic brand
        • Culinary Circle - Restaurant quality food
        • Essential Everyday - Private Label National Brand Equivalent
        • Equaline - OTC Pharmacy and Personal Care National Brand Equivalent
        • Farm Fresh - Store generic brand
        • Farm Stand - Produce
        • Flavorite - introduced by store 178 in year 1997, the focus of this label is low cost soda.
        • Happy Tails (now Whole Care Pet) - Line of pet foods.
        • Heritage - Liquors
        • Java Delight - Supervalu's own brand of coffee, is sourced from Distant Lands Coffee
        • Max Velocity - Energy Drinks
        • NutriPlan - Pet Foods
        • Richfood - Store generic brand
        • Shoppers Value - Extreme value generic brand
        • Stockman & Dakota - Premium beef
        • Stone Ridge Creamery - Ice cream, frozen yogurt and sherbet
        • Wild Harvest - Organic Produce, Meat and Snack Foods
        • SuperChill - Soft Drinks and New Age Beverages
        • SuperCrunch - Snack Foods
        • Village Market
        • Wild Harvest Organic Foods - Natural and organic products

        Some of the older inactive private label brands are:

        • Hillfarm
        • Economy Buy
        • Home Best
        • Essensia
        • Chateau
        • Quality Plus
        • Elf

        Diversity Edit

        SuperValu received a 100% rating on the Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign starting in 2008. [27]

        Suntingan Alam Sekitar

        Cub Foods and its parent company, SuperValu, was the first grocer in Minnesota to be awarded LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Gold NC2.2 Certification for one of its stores. The Cub store, located in the Phalen neighborhood of St. Paul is one of just three grocery stores in the nation to successfully achieve LEED Gold Certification. [28]

        Albertsons was the first major retailer to earn a LEED Certification on their remodeled La Habra store. [29] It features water saving faucets, over 40 skylights, "Night" curtains over open cold cases and LED lighting.

        In August 2009, SuperValu was recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for achieving their emissions target. [30]

        In June 2002, SuperValu announced it would restate previous financial reports due to accounting irregularities uncovered at its pharmacy division. As a result, shares of the company slumped 18 percent. On July 12, 2002, SuperValu lost a lawsuit over the use of improper accounting practices regarding the cost of goods sold for at least the previous four years, and paid a $4,000,000 settlement. [31]

        SuperValu sent a letter to My Cub Rewards members on August 25, 2014 who provided their data and shoppers who used credit cards during the period between June 22, 2014 (at the earliest) through July 17, 2014 (at the latest) at 209 SuperValu stores and stand-alone liquor stores who may have been affected by a data security breach. SuperValu posted this information on their website in a press release dated August 14, 2014. Information on the affected stores and eligibility for customers on identity protection programs are available on SuperValu's press release site. [32]


        9c. The Boston Patriots


        Boston was the home for many patriots and supports of the American cause. This map shows the plan of Boston in 1775, at the height of the Revolution.

        The American Revolution was not simply a series of impersonal events. Men and women made fateful, often difficult decisions that led to the great clash.

        Although patriots could be found in any of the 13 colonies, nowhere were they more numerous than in the city of Boston.

        Perhaps the prevalence of shipping in Boston made Bostonians especially resent the restrictions on trade. Maybe its legacy of religious quarrels with the Church of England made Bostonians more rebellious. Its long history of town meetings and self-rule may have led New Englanders to be more wary of royal authority.

        Perhaps a combination of these and other factors led the city of Boston to be the leading voice against British authority. It was, after all, the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party.

        Furthermore, fierce patriots such as James Otis, Samuel Adams, John Adams, John Hancock, and Paul Revere were all citizens of one great city: Boston.

        James Otis

        Quick-tempered James Otis was one of the first vociferous opponents of British taxation policies. As early as 1761, Boston merchants hired him to provide legal defense against British search warrants.

        His widely distributed pamphlet, The Rights of the British Colonists Asserted and Proved , was one of the first legal criticisms of Parliament's taxation policies. A large man with a large heart for British liberties, he was perceived by many in London to be the center of treasonous American activity.

        But Otis also saw himself as fiercely loyal to the English Constitution. Once he stormed into Boston's Royal Coffee House to face drawn swords because his loyalty had been called into question. Violence ensued. Otis was so severely beaten that he never really recovered. The wounds he received from British made him somewhat of a martyr around Boston.

        Lightning Strikes

        Otis was never the same mentally after the severe beating. Friends and admirers commented about his diminished verbal capacities.

        Of Otis, John Adams wrote, "In short, I never saw such an object of admiration, reverence, contempt, and compassion, all at once, as this. I fear, I tremble, I mourn, for the man and his country many others mourn over him, with tears in their eyes." Poor Otis!

        In May, 1782, Otis was killed after being struck by a bolt of lightning.

        Samuel Adams

        Samuel Adams was perhaps the fieriest supporter of American liberty in the 13 colonies. His mind drew a sharp distinction between the evils of the British Empire and simple American life. His skills as a political organizer drove the colonies toward declaring independence. Adams chaired the Boston town meeting that preceded the infamous tea party.

        Rather unsuccessful in a series of pursuits prior to the Revolution, Adams found his calling in organizing and rabble-rousing. He served as an active member of the Sons of Liberty and the creator of the first significant committee of correspondence. As the Revolution approached, the cries for Adams' head grew louder and louder in the streets of London.

        The Destruction of the Tea is the pretence for the unprecedented Severity shown to the Town of Boston but the real Cause is the opposition to Tyranny for which the people of that Town have always made themselves remarkeable & for which I think this Country is much obligd to them. They are suffering the Vengeance of Administration in the Common Cause of America.

        &ndash Samuel Adams, letter to Arthur Lee (January 25, 1774)

        John Adams

        John Adams , Samuel's second cousin, was no less a patriot. His early fame as a defense attorney for the British soldiers in the trial that followed the Boston Massacre cannot be taken in isolation.

        He provided the wording of the resistance message sent to George III that was adopted by the First Continental Congress. John and Samuel Adams represented the radical wing of the Second Continental Congress that demanded a taking up of arms against Britain. John Adams was also a member of the committee of five who drafted the Declaration of Independence.

        John Hancock

        The man with the famous signature &mdash John Hancock &mdash was also a Bostonian. Hancock earned the early ire of British officials as a major smuggler. The seizure of one of his ships brought a response from Bostonians that led directly to British occupation in 1768.

        Later, Hancock and Samuel Adams were the two agitators whose arrest was ordered by General Gage after the battles at Lexington and Concord. As a man of great wealth, he had much to lose by resisting Britain. Nevertheless, he did not bend.

        Paul Revere

        Paul Revere did not come from the same social class as the aforementioned patriots. As a silversmith, he was a man of humbler means, but his attitudes about Britain were anything but humble. His famous midnight ride that warned of the advancing British troops was only one of his revolutionary actions. He was also an illustrator, whose image of the Boston Massacre became iconic.

        I set off, it was then about 11 o'clock, the moon shone bright. I had got almost over Charlestown Common, towards Cambridge, when I saw two officers on horse-back, standing under the shade of a tree, in a narrow part of the road. I was near enough to see their holsters and cockades. One of them started his horse towards me, the other up the road, as I supposed, to head me, should I escape the first. I turned my horses short about, and rode upon a full gallop for Mistick Road, he followed me about 300 yards, and finding he could not catch me, returned. I proceeded to Lexington, through Mistick, and alarmed Mr. Adams and Col. Hancock .

        &ndash Paul Revere, account of his ride (1775)

        When the British suspended the Massachusetts legislature for refusing to retract its circular letter, Revere engraved the names of the 92 assemblymen who stood up to Parliament. His engravings were used by patriots as anti-British propaganda, particularly his famous engraving of the Boston Massacre.

        These five were but a handful of Bostonians who became the thorn in the British side. Their brave actions encouraged American patriotism throughout the 13 colonies. As the American Revolution was dawning, the Boston patriots led the way.


        Lasting Legacies of British Imperialism

        British/Hong Kong Passport prior to 1997

        The following website is a part of the Hoover Archives that covers 19th century European Imperialism in Asia. Since it is a “.gov” page, it somewhat represents the political memory of that period. This source represents a politically American point of view on events such as the Opium Wars and the Boxer Rebellion. This website is worth investigating because it deals with the political memory of imperialism from the angle of a nation that participated but mostly remained on the sidelines. It depicts this period of imperialism in retrospect and could be contrasted with the various primary sources to gain a more stronger understanding of the era.

        The following source covers the history of Hong Kong from its colonization in 1839 to its return to China in 1997. This book explains the strategic economic position of Hong Kong in relation to imperial global commerce. It also focuses on the social adaptations of ethnic Hong Kong citizens. This source serve as a comprehensive analysis on the political, economic and social development of this island with respect to global changes in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

        Tsang, Steve. A Modern History of Hong Kong. London. I. B. Tauris. 2007

        Because the island of Hong Kong have been under British political and cultural influence for over a century, its return to China faces a dilemma of culture. This book explains the complexities of such conflicts. First, the most obvious cultural conflict was communication. For the last century, Hong Kong have been using a bilingual system. The citizens mostly spoke Cantonese, but the official written language was English. This creates an internal language barrier because the official language of Chinese is mandarin. Another cultural conflict is the nature of the justice system. Hong Kong have adopted the Western system of trial by jury, but the Communist government tries criminals without a jury. This book discusses the negotiations of these dilemmas between Hong Kong and China. Due the such issues, the Communist government is currently implementing a policy for Hong Kong to politically function as it did under British control for 50 more years.

        Abbas, Ackbar. Hong Kong: Culture and Politics of Disappearance. Minneapolis. University of Minnesota Press. 1998


        Four Letters on Government – John and Samuel Adams

        Samuel Adams (1722-1803) and his second cousin, John Adams (1735-1826), were important and longstanding actors in the struggle for American independence. John Adams expounds on this in his diary on February 9, 1772:

        Is it not a pity that a brace [pair] of so obscure a breed should be the only ones to defend the household, when the generous mastiffs and best-blooded hounds are all hushed to silence by the bones and crumbs that are thrown to them, and even Cerberus himself is bought off with a sop? … they [John and Samuel Adams] have a sense of honor and a love of their country, the testimony of a good conscious, and the consolation of philosophy, if nothing more, which will certainly support them, in the cause of their country, to their last gasp for breath, whenever that may happen.[i]

        This “brace of Adamses” kept their word and continued to advocate for the liberty of their country through the War for Independence, and throughout the course of their lives, as demonstrated by a series of letters between them in 1790. John Adams was the vice president of the US and Samuel was the lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts during this period. Published in 1802 under the title Four Letters, discuss the future government of America from the perspectives of both the Federalist John Adams and the Anti-Federalist Samuel Adams.

        John Adams, responding to an earlier letter from Samuel, recounts a recent visit to Philadelphia:

        The sight of our old Liberty Hall and of several of our old friends, had brought your venerable idea to my mind, and continued it there a great part of the last week so that a letter from you, on my arrival, seemed but in continuation.[ii]

        What, my old friend, is this world about to become? Is the millennium commencing? Are the kingdoms of it about to be governed by reason? Your Boston town meetings and our Harvard College have set the universe in motion. Every thing will be pulled down. So much seems certain. But what will be built up? Are there any principles of political architecture? What are they?[iii]

        Samuel Adams answers this query in his response:

        You ask,—what the is about to become? and,—is the millennium commencing? I have not studied the prophecies, and cannot even conjecture. The golden age, so finely pictured by poets, I believe has never as yet existed but in their own imagination. … The same tragedies have been acted on the theatre of the world, the same arts of tormenting have been studied and practiced to this day and even religion and reason untied have never succeeded to establish the permanent foundation of political freedom and happiness in the most enlightened countries on the earth.[iv]

        The elder Adams, as he turns his attention towards the hopeful element that he sees in mankind, becomes more positive:

        The love of liberty is inter-woven in the soul of man, and can never be totally extinguished and there are certain periods when human patience can no longer endure indignity and oppression. The spark of liberty then kindles into a flame, when the injured people, attentive to the feelings of the just rights, magnanimously contend for their complete restoration.[v]

        He reverts to his previous manner as he recounts how history shows that so often these sparks of freedom lead not to the flame of liberty, but rather to the flame of tyranny, remarking that, “such contests have too often ended in nothing more than ‘a change of impostors and impositions.’”[vi] Seeing that such a threat faces America as well, Samuel Adams explains the only hope he sees for preserving liberty:

        Let the divines and philosophers, statesmen and patriots, unite their endeavors to renovate the age, by impression the minds of men with the importance of educating their little boys and girls of inculcating in the minds of youth the fear and love of the Deity and universal philanthropy, and, in subordination to these great principles, the love of their country instructing them in the art of self-government, without which they never can act a wise part in the government of societies, great or small in short, of leading them in the study and practice of the exalted virtues of the Christian system, which will happily tend to subdue the turbulent passions of men, and introduce that golden age…[vii]

        Samuel, having placed his hopes in subsequent generations’ education in the tenets of true virtue, quips: “When this millennium shall commence, if there shall be any need of civil government, indulge me in the fancy, that it will be in the republican form, or something better.[viii]

        In his response, John Adams expresses his own pessimism regarding the nation’s—and more generally the world’s—ability to provide such an education. He agrees with his older cousin but reflects:

        I think with you, that knowledge and benevolence ought to be promoted as much as possible but, despairing of ever seeing them sufficiently general for the security of society, I am for seeking institutions which may supply in some degree the defect. If there were no ignorance, error, or vice, there would be neither principles nor systems of civil or political government.[ix]

        In this, the difference surfaces between the two Adams’. Anti-federalist Samuel Adams prefers to hope for the elevation of the people to a sufficient capability for self-government, while federalist John Adams places his hopes in the ability of an active government to preserve the safety of the nation by institutional means. Both aim for the secured liberty of America, but one seeks to achieve it by strengthening the people first, while the other aims to strengthen the government first. John Adams further explains his position:

        With you, I have also the honor most perfectly to harmonize in your sentiments of the humanity and wisdom of promoting education in knowledge, virtue, and benevolence. But I think that these will confirm mankind in the opinion of the necessity of preserving and strengthening the dikes against the ocean, its tides and storms. Human appetites, passions, prejudices, and self-love will never be conquered by benevolence and knowledge alone, introduced by human means.[x]

        John also takes a different route regarding the effects of the people’s strong affection for liberty and freedom so lauded by Samuel Adams. The younger says:

        The numbers of men in all ages have preferred ease, slumber, and good cheer to liberty, when they have been in competition. We must not then depend alone upon the lover of liberty in the soul of man for its preservation. Some political institutions must be prepared, to assist this love against its enemies. Without these, the struggle will end only in a change of impostors. … Let us be impartial, then, and speak the whole truth. Till we do, we shall never discover all the true principles that are necessary.[xi]

        To the objections on the primacy of universal education over a strong government Samuel Adams responds:

        I am very willing to agree with you, in thinking that improvements in knowledge and benevolence receive much assistance from the principles and systems of good government. But is it not as true that, without knowledge and benevolence, men would neither have been capable nor disposed to search for the principles or form the system? Should we not, my friend, bear a grateful remembrance of our pious and benevolent ancestors, who early laid plans of education? by which means, wisdom, knowledge, and virtue have been generally diffused among the body of the people, and they have been enabled to form and establish a civil constitution, calculated for the preservation of their rights and liberties.[xii]

        He then continues to argue for the necessity of a widespread educational system directed towards the moral development of the community:

        I am far from thing the people can be deceived, by urging upon them a dependence on the more general prevalence of knowledge and virtue. It is one of the most essential means of further, and still further improvements in society, and of correcting and amending moral sentiments and habits and political institutions till, “by human means,” directed by Divine influence, men shall be prepared for that “happy and holy state,” when “the Messiah is to reign.”[xiii]

        Samuel Adams end by expressing that while John views government as the tool which will level both the aristocracy and the people, he believes that education is the true leveling agent:

        Wise and judicious modes of education, patronized and supported by communities, will draw together the sons of the rich and the poor, among whom it makes no distinction it will cultivate the natural genius, elevate the soul, excite laudable emulation to excel in knowledge, piety, and benevolence and, finally, it will reward its patrons and benefactors, by shedding its benign influence on the public mind. Education inures men to thinking and reflection, to reasoning and demonstration. It discovers to them the moral and religious duties they owe to God, their country, and to all mankind.[xiv]

        These four letters provide a window into the party conflicts which were raging between the Federalists and Anti-Federalist—though they show a much more civil and thoughtful tone than was generally seen at the time. In its most basic form, the “brace of Adamses” are seeking to answer how best the freedom of society can be improved. While they both value the necessities for education and political principles, the real difference arises from where they place primacy.

        [i] John Adams, The Works of John Adams Vol. 2 (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1850) February 9, 1772, pages 295-296. (Read here)

        [ii] John Adams, The Works of John Adams Jilid 6 (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1851) page 411. (Read here)

        [iii] John Adams, Works Vol. 6, John Adams to Samuel Adams 12 September, 1790, pages 411-412.

        [iv] John Adams, Works Vol. 6, Samuel Adams to John Adams 4 October, 1790, page 412.

        [v] John Adams, Works Vol. 6, Samuel Adams to John Adams 4 October, 1790, page 413.

        [vii] John Adams, Works Vol. 6, Samuel Adams to John Adams 4 October, 1790, page 414.

        [ix] John Adams, Works Vol. 6, John Adams to Samuel Adams 18 October, 1790, page 415.

        [x] John Adams, Works Vol. 6, John Adams to Samuel Adams 18 October, 1790, page 416.

        [xi] John Adams, Works Vol. 6, John Adams to Samuel Adams 18 October, 1790, page 418.

        [xii] John Adams, Works Vol. 6, Samuel Adams to John Adams 20 November, 1790, page 422.

        [xiii] John Adams, Works Vol. 6, Samuel Adams to John Adams 20 November, 1790, page 423.

        [xiv] John Adams, Works Vol. 6, Samuel Adams to John Adams 20 November, 1790, page 425.


        John Adams to Abigail Adams

        Had a Declaration of Independency been made seven Months ago, it would have been attended with many great and glorious Effects. . . .1 We might before this Hour, have formed Alliances with foreign States.—We should have mastered Quebec and been in Possession of Canada. . . . You will perhaps wonder, how such a Declaration would have influenced our Affairs, in Canada, but if I could write with Freedom I could easily convince you, that it would, and explain to you the manner how.—Many Gentlemen in high Stations and of great Influence have been duped, by the ministerial Bubble of Commissioners to treat. . . . And in real, sincere Expectation of this Event, which they so fondly wished, they have been slow and languid, in promoting Measures for the Reduction of that Province. Others there are in the Colonies who really wished that our Enterprise in Canada would be defeated, that the Colonies might be brought into Danger and Distress between two Fires, and be thus induced to submit. Others really wished to defeat the Expedition to Canada, lest the Conquest of it, should elevate the Minds of the People too much to hearken to those Terms of Reconciliation which they believed would be offered Us. These jarring Views, Wishes and Designs, occasioned an opposition to many salutary Measures, which were proposed for the Support of that Expedition, and caused Obstructions, Embarrassments and studied Delays, which have finally, lost Us the Province.

        All these Causes however in Conjunction would not have disappointed Us, if it had not been for a Misfortune, which could not be foreseen, and perhaps could not have been prevented, I mean the Prevalence of the small Pox among our Troops. . . . This fatal Pestilence compleated our Destruction.—It is a Frown of Providence upon Us, which We ought to lay to heart.

        But on the other Hand, the Delay of this Declaration to this Time, has many great Advantages attending it.—The Hopes of Reconciliation, which were fondly entertained by Multitudes of honest and well meaning tho weak2 and mistaken People, have been gradually and at last totally extinguished.—Time has been given for the whole People, maturely to consider the great Question of Independence and to ripen their Judgments, dissipate their Fears, and allure their Hopes, by discussing it in News Papers and Pamphletts, by debating it, in Assemblies, Conventions, Committees of Safety and Inspection, in Town and County Meetings, as well as in private Conversations, so that the whole People in every Colony of the 13,3 have now adopted it, as their own Act.—This will cement the Union, and avoid those Heats and perhaps Convulsions which might have been occasioned, by such a Declaration Six Months ago.

        But the Day is past. The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America.—I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival. It ought to be commemorated, as the Day of Deliverance by solemn Acts of Devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with4 Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more.5

        You will think me transported with Enthusiasm but I am not.—I am well aware of the Toil and Blood and Treasure, that it will cost Us to maintain this Declaration, and support and defend these States.—Yet through all the Gloom I can see the Rays of ravishing6 Light and Glory. I can see that the End is more than worth all the Means. And that Posterity will tryumph in that Days Transaction, even7 altho We should rue8 it, which I trust in God We shall not.9


        Cacar

        In the early years of the American Revolution, George Washington faced an invisible killer that he had once battled as a teenager. While the earlier fight had threatened only his life, at stake in this confrontation were thousands, including military and civilian alike, the continued viability of Washington's army, and the success of the war for independence from Britain.

        The unseen killer was smallpox, which Washington described in 1777 as a potentially greater threat "than&hellipthe Sword of the Enemy." Smallpox was typically brought to eighteen-century America by either English immigrants or recently-arrived slaves. Unlike in Europe, however, the majority of the American population led relatively isolated lives on farms and plantations. Outside of the coastal cities of Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston, there was little chance of acquiring the disease. For example, there were no smallpox epidemics in the colony of Virginia prior to 1747.

        In fact, very few Virginians were exposed to smallpox prior to the American Revolution. One of the few Virginians who was exposed was George Washington, who contracted the disease during his only trip away from the American mainland while visiting Barbados in November of 1751. Washington was only nineteen years old at the time and the illness, which lasted nearly a month, left him only with slight scarring. The brush with smallpox, however, did provide Washington with immunity from further attacks of the disease, the benefits of which would not become apparent until many years later.

        The coming of the American Revolution, however, made the spread of smallpox more widespread. Soldiers arriving from England and Germany frequently brought smallpox to American shores. In addition, recruits from all over North America joined the Continental Army, increasing the scope of the disease. Within days of taking command of the army at Cambridge, Massachusetts during the summer of 1775, Washington wrote to assure the President of the Continental Congress that he had been "particularly attentive to the least Symptoms of the Small Pox," quarantining anyone suspected of having the disease in a special hospital. Washington further promised that he would "continue the utmost Vigilance against this most dangerous enemy."

        By the fall of 1775 Boston--which was under British occupation--suffered from a widespread smallpox epidemic that threatened to spread throughout the ranks of Washington's army. Reports even surfaced that the British deliberately sent infected people out of the city to expand the epidemic into American lines. In response, Washington forbade refugees from Boston to come near the American camp in order to avoid the risk of exposure. After the British left the city in March of 1776, Washington sent in a force of 1,000 smallpox-immune American troops to occupy Boston in order to avoid further spread of the disease. Smallpox continued to plague the Continental Army as well as the civilian population. Epidemics broke out in both Boston and Philadelphia in the summer of 1776, and the retreat of an American force sent to take Quebec was blamed on a number of factors including the high prevalence of smallpox amongst soldiers.

        While Washington believed wholeheartedly in the efficacy of inoculation, in May of 1776 he ordered that no one in his army be inoculated violations of this order would result in severe punishment. The summer campaigns were about to begin and Washington could not afford to have a large number of his men incapacitated for a month, vulnerable to attack by the British. Washington eventually instituted a system where new recruits would be inoculated with smallpox immediately upon enlistment. As a result soldiers would contract the milder form of the disease at the same time that they were being outfitted with uniforms and weapons. Soldiers would consequently be completely healed, inoculated, and supplied by the time they left to join the army.

        Mary V. Thompson
        Research Historian
        Mount Vernon Estate and Gardens

        Bibliografi:
        Ackerknecht, Erwin H. A Short History of Medicine. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1968.

        Blanton, Wyndham B. Medicine in Virginia in the Eighteenth Century. Richmond, Virginia: Garrett & Massie, Incorporated, 1931.

        The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799, 39 volumes, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1931-1943.

        Hening, William Waller. The Statutes at Large&hellip, Volume VIII. Richmond, Virginia: J. & G. Cochran, 1821.

        The Diaries of George Washington, 6 volumes, eds. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia, 1976-1979.


        Tonton videonya: Sejarah Orde BaruSandrina Kumalasari2019101615019 (Jun 2022).


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